ean 128 barcode c# Analog Cellular Systems in Software

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Analog Cellular Systems
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Analog systems do nothing for these needs Using amplitude or frequency modulation techniques to transmit voice on the radio signal uses all of the available bandwidth This means that the cellular carriers can support a single call today on a single frequency The limitations of the systems include limited channel availability The analog system was designed for quick communication while on the road Because this service could meet the needs of users on the go, the thought process regarding heavy penetration was only minimally add-ressed However, as the major Metropolitan Service Areas (MSA) began expanding, the carriers realized that the analog systems were going to be too limiting With only a single user on a frequency, congestion in the MSA became a tremendous problem For example, a cellular channel uses 30 kHz of bandwidth for a single telephone call! Cellular was designed to overcome the limitations of conventional mobile telephone Areas of coverage are divided into honeycomb-type cells and hexagonal design of smaller sizes, as shown in Figure 20-1 The cells overlap each other at the outer boundaries Frequencies can be divided into bands or cells to prevent interference and jamming of the neighboring cell s frequencies The cellular system uses much less power output for transmitting The vehicular transmitter uses 3 watts of power, while the handheld sets use only 3/10 watts Frequencies can be reused much more often and are closer to each other The average cell design is approximately 3 5 miles across The more users who subscribe to a network, the closer the transmitters are placed to each other In rural areas, the cells are much further apart
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Figure 20-1: The cell patterns
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For normal operation, cell sites may be separated by 3 5 miles, but as more users complain of no service due to congestion, cell splitting occurs A cell can be subdivided into smaller cells, reallocating frequencies for continued use The smaller the cell, the more equipment and other components are necessary This places an added financial burden on the carriers as they attempt to match customer needs with returns on investments
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Log On
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When the vehicle telephone powers on, it immediately logs onto the network First, the telephone set sends a message to the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) The Mobile Telephone Switching Office is the equivalent of a Class 5 Central Office It provides all the line-in-trunk interface capabilities, much the same as the CO will do The information sent to the MTSO includes the electronic serial number and telephone number from the handset These two pieces of information combined will identify the individual device The telephone set will use an information channel to transmit the information Several channels are set aside specifically for the purposes of log on capabilities (see Figure 20-2 )
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Figure 20-2: Log-on process uses specific channels
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Monitoring Control Channels
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Once a telephone set has logged on, it will then scan the 21 channels set aside as control channels Upon scanning, the telephone will lock in on the channel that it is receiving the strongest It will then go into monitoring mode Although the set has nothing to send, it will continue to listen to the monitored channel in the event the mobile telephone switching office has an incoming call for it The telephone user has actually done nothing Upon power-up, the set immediately will log onto the network, identify itself, and go into the monitoring mode
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One can assume in vehicular communications that the vehicle will be in motion As the vehicle moves from cell to cell, it will move out of range from the first site, but come into range of the second site The received signal on the monitoring channel will begin to fail (get too weak to hear), as shown in Figure 20-3 Immediately the telephone will rescan all the monitoring channels and select a new one After the vehicle finds a new channel, it will continue to monitor that channel until such time as it rolls out of range again This concept of rolling from site to site allows the vehicle to be in constant touch with the mobile telephone switching office so long as the set is on
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