ean 128 barcode generator c# Figure 26-5: An E-1 frame format in Software

Maker QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software Figure 26-5: An E-1 frame format

Figure 26-5: An E-1 frame format
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Extended Superframe Format (ESF)
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As a means of overcoming the limitations of the D4 framing protocols, the industry developed a newer protocol called ESF This is an extension of the 12-frame format in order to double the size in the buffers at the CSU When the CSU has 24 frames of information, the CSU will use the framing bit for more than just a locator bit It will define where the signaling is handled, and use this framing bit for other things such as the following: (Note: Remember there are 8,000 framing bits per second)
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2 K bits are used for framing 2 K bits are used for error checking (CRC 6) 4 K bits are used for a maintenance and diagnostic capability to troubleshoot the circuit and improve availability
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The framing format of the ESF is shown in Figure 26-6
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Figure 26-6: Extended Superframe Format improves uptime and error checking After the framing bits had been addressed, another choice was used to handle the T1 circuit As described previously, the robbed bit signaling gets in the way of data transmission It is not a problem for voice communications, but definitely impacts the data side of the business To solve this problem, a technique called common channel signaling was introduced The use of channel number 24 was assigned for strictly signaling (call setup and teardown) for the other 23 channels By using a dedicated outof-band signaling channel, the other 23 channels can carry all 64 Kbps for data, yielding a higher throughput per channel, but with a penalty of losing one channel from the T1 The format of the common channel signaling arrangement is shown in Figure 26-7 This is a choice a user has to make If all the user wants is voice communications, the robbed bit signaling will suffice If, however, the user wants to transmit data, then the common channel signaling will be a potential benefit to the data transmission
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Figure 26-7: Common channel signaling uses channel number 24
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Another problem surfaced when T1 was introduced for data transmission In order to synchronize the carrier services, T1 uses a byte synchronization plan In every eight bits there must be at least one pulse (represented as a digital one) for the transmitters to derive their timing on the line If voice is the application, there are minimal problems with this constraint As long as a party on the conversation is talking, there are sufficient numbers of ones pulses transmitted to keep the line synchronized Yet, when data is transmitted, there may be strings of zeros transmitted continuously This string of zeros will cause the transmitters to drift and lose timing To solve this problem, the Bell system introduced a ones density requirement, which states that in every eight bits transmitted there must be at least one digital one Further, no more than 15 consecutive zeros may be transmitted in a row; otherwise the timing will be lost The solution to meeting this rule is handled in the CSU If the CSU receives 8 zeros
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in a row, it will strip off the least significant bit and substitute a one in its place This will meet the requirements of the ones density However, when the zero is stripped off and a one substituted in its place (called pulse stuffing), there is no way to know when this is done or when it is not Consequently, this solution meets the timing and synchronization demands of the network, but leaves the user with the risk that the 8th bit is wrong This leads the user to only trusting the first 7 bits, but ignoring the 8th bit Ultimately, the result is 7 usable bits instead of 8 or a 56 Kbps throughput on the line instead of 64 Kbps (7 bits times 8,000 samples = 56 Kbps) This results in a lot of wasted bandwidth and a limited throughput for data transmission The pulse stuffing mechanism is shown in Figure 26-8
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