ean 128 barcode generator c# Figure 26-8: Pulse stuffing allows the timing to be preserved in Software

Printer QR Code 2d barcode in Software Figure 26-8: Pulse stuffing allows the timing to be preserved

Figure 26-8: Pulse stuffing allows the timing to be preserved
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B8ZS
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It did not take long before the user began to demand better efficiency of the T1 line Therefore, a newer technique is used called Bipolar (or binary) 8 Zero Substitution With B8ZS, the CSU is responsible for substituting a long string of zeros, eight at a time, with a fictitious 8 bits to meet the demands of the line synchronization, while at the same time allowing the receiving device to recognize that 8 zeros were originally sent The B8ZS inserts a bit pattern of 0001 1011, easily satisfying the demands of the synchronization plan By inserting these bits, the 4th and the 7th bits will be set as violations to the bipolar rule ( alternate mark inversion [AMI]) Receiving a bit pattern of 0001 1011 with a bipolar violation in positions 4 and 7 are recognized as a flag that 8 zeros were intended Therefore, the receiving CSU will strip off the fictitious word and reinsert all zeros to the receiving device This allows for clear-channel 64 Kbps data transmission The B8ZS is shown in Figure 26-9
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Figure 26-9: B8ZS inserts an 8-bit pattern that is recognizable by the receiver as substituted With all these problems and solutions, one can only wonder why everyone uses the T1 The primary reason is the 1544 Mbps throughput (or slightly less based on the restrictions) for voice and data transmission The second reason is the cost/benefits ratio associated with bundling the services onto a single, four-wire circuit Third, is the benefit of all digital circuitry to the door It is because of these three reasons that T1 is the most widely used digital transmission service in North America
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T-2 Transmission (or DS-2)
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For all its work, the T1 was a beginning step to the North American Digital Hierarchy From there, other multiplexing steps were instituted to get higher speed communications services A second means of achieving the high-speed communications is to multiplex four DS-1s into a DS-2 The DS-2 (physically it is a T-2) is a data channel carrying 96 channels of 64 Kbps each, plus overhead yielding a nominal 6312 Mbps data transmission speed To create the DS-2, four DS-1 signals are combined This creates a DS-2 frame as shown in Figure 26-10 The DS-2 frame is often referred to as the DS-2 M frame and consists of four subframes Each of the subframes are labeled: M1 though M4 A subframe consists of six blocks of information; each block contains 49 bits
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Figure 26-10: A DS-2 M frame The first bit in each block is an overhead bit A DS-2 frame has 24 overhead bits The remaining 48 bits in each block are DS-1 information bits Carrying this out then there is: 48 DS1 bits/block 6 blocks/subframe 4 subframes/ DS-2 frame = 1,152 DS-1 information bits The four subframes do not represent each of the separate DS-1 signals; instead a bit interleaving of the four DS-1 signals forms the DS-2 frame The overhead bits precede the data bits in each of the blocks The data bits are interleaved, where 0i designates the time slot devoted to DS-1 input i After 48 information bits, 12 from each of the DS-1s, a new DS-2 overhead bit is inserted The total number of DS-1 bits transmitted per second in a DS-2 frame is therefore: DS-1 rate 4 DS-1 signals/DS2 = information bits 1,544 Mbps 4 DS-1 signals = 6176 Mbps
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The rate chosen for the DS-2 is 6312 Mbps This allows extra overhead for bit stuffing to synchronize the signals
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DS-2 Bit Stuffing
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The four DS-1 signals are synchronous to themselves, but asynchronous to each other This means they may be operating at different rates To synchronize the signal, the multiplexers use a bit stuffing technique (this was referred to as pulse stuffing in the DS1 discussion) Bit stuffing is used to adjust the incoming rates because they all differ
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Framing Bits for the DS-2
Framing bits (F-bits) form the frame alignment much the same as the DS-1 framing bit There are a total of 8 framing bits in a DS-2 frame (two in each subframe) F bits are located in the first bit position in blocks 3 and 6 of each subframe The frame alignment pattern is 01, which repeats every subframe The framing bits are shown in Figure 2611 Other overhead bits are also shown in the framing pattern These include the following:
M-bits (multiframe) There are four M-bits per DS-2 frame These are always located in the first bit position in each subframe C-bits The C-bits are used to control bit stuffing Three C-bits per subframe are allowed, also shown in Figure 26-11
Figure 26-11: The DS-2 overhead bits shown What this all boils down to is the information bits, overhead bits, and other inserted stuff bits all equate to a DS-2 framed format that produces the 6312 Mbps data rate The DS-2 rate is a provider service, primarily used in the intermediate steps for achieving a DS-3 (called also a T-3) and for use in delivering a DS-2 to a remote terminal over a subscriber loop carrier with 96 channels (called an SLC-96) Very few customers ever had the
availability to use a DS-2 But one must not view this as an unnecessary multiplexing rate because of the original method of multiplexing from a DS-1 to a DS-3; the intermediate rates were needed to control and format the signals This is a piece of history we should all remember One caveat bears mention With the emergence of the ADSL services, the local providers were trying to deliver a download rate from the network to the consumer for a 6 Mbps video rate, 2 Mbps for data and POTS The upload rates were lower, but the download rates approximated the DS-2 rate (It is not classified as a DS-2; the reference here is for analysis to the speeds and aggregates we are now seeing from the suppliers)
DS-3 Service (T-3)
The next step in the evolution of digital transmission services is the T3 or DS-3 This is a high-speed, communication signal used by the larger organizations and the public carriers (local and long distance carriers) Because of its pricing and delivery, this was never practical except for the largest of corporations and providers The delivery on a copperbased plant used coaxial cable to reach and support the 44736 Mbps rate of speed Newer versions deliver the DS-3 on fiber optics or microwave radio, but these are strictly media used to carry the signal Getting the signal is what is important
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