ean 128 generator c# Figure 27-9: The STS-3 (OC-3) frame in Software

Maker QR Code in Software Figure 27-9: The STS-3 (OC-3) frame

Figure 27-9: The STS-3 (OC-3) frame
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ADD-Drop Multiplexing: A SONET Benefit
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Another major benefit of the SONET specification is the ability to perform add-drop multiplexing Even though network elements are compatible at the OC-N level, they may still differ from vendor to vendor SONET doesn t attempt to restrict vendors to all providing a single product, nor does it require that they produce one of every type out there One vendor may offer an add-drop multiplexer with access to the DS-1 level only, whereas another may offer access to DS-1 and DS-3 rates The benefit of an add-drop multiplexer on a Wide Area Network is to drop (demultiplex) only the portions of the optical stream required for a location and let the rest pass through without the demultiplexing process It would be extremely inefficient to have to demultiplex an entire OC-12, for example, only to drop out one DS-1 The ability to extract only what is necessary helps to prevent errors, loss of data, and other delays inherent with older technologies The add-drop multiplexer makes this attractive for carriers to use in rural areas where they may bundle many lower-speed communications channels onto a single OC-1 or OC-3 to carry the information back to the central metropolitan areas Moreover, beyond just dropping a digital signal out of a higher-speed OC-n, the carrier can fill in what has been vacated (For example, if a DS-1 is dropped off along the optical path, a new DS-1 can be multiplexed back into the OC-3 in its place) This allows the carriers considerable flexibility In Figure 27-10 an add-drop multiplexer is shown Here portions of the bandwidth can be dropped off and additional new signals can be added in place of the data stream dropped out of the higher-speed signal A single stage add-drop multiplexing function can multiplex various inputs into an OC-n signal At an add-drop site, only those signals that need to be accessed are dropped and inserted The remaining traffic continues through the network switching system without requiring special processing
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Figure 27-10: Add-drop multiplexing with SONET
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Several different topologies can be used in a SONET network by using the various multiplexers These include the normal topologies most networks have been accustomed to over the years They include the following:
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It is the variations that allow the flexibility of SONET in the Wide Area Networks built by the carriers, but now becoming the method of choice at many large organizations In each of the topologies, larger organizations are finding the benefits of installing highly reliable, interoperable equipment at the private network interfaces and access to the public networks
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Point-to-Point
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The SONET multiplexer, the entry level PTE for an organization (or the equipment installed by the LEC at the customer s premises to access the network), acts as a concentrator device for the multiple lower-speed communications channels, such as DS-1 and DS-3 In its simplest form, two devices are connected with an optical fiber (with any repeaters as necessary) as a point-to-point circuit As the entry-level point into a SONET architecture, the inputs and outputs are identical In this environment, the network can act as a stand-alone environment and not have to interface with the public switched networks See Figure 27-11 for the point-to-point multiplexing arrangement
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Figure 27-11: Point-to-point service with SONET
Point-to-Multipoint
The next step is to consider the point-to-multipoint arrangement This will use a form of add-drop multiplexing to drop circuits off along the way In a large corporate network spanning the country (or any subset), a single, high-speed link may be employed The SONET Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM) is used for the task at hand, dropping circuits out without demultiplexing the entire high-speed signal In Figure 27-12 , the ADM is installed between two far-end locations so that signals can be added or dropped off as necessary This is a better solution than renting three different circuits between points AB, A-C, and B-C, which adds to the complexity and cost By using a circuit from A-B-C with ADMs, the service can usually be more efficiently accommodated
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