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There is a good deal of confusion over the issue of routing vs switching Now that we have discussed and given examples of each, let s see if we can make a clear distinction This section began with a discussion of X25 and packet switch In X25 we used the first packet to contain the address That packet had to be routed to find the destination In the process of doing the routing, a virtual circuit was set up by using the Logical Channel Number (LCN) that was now carried in every packet in lieu of the address This is called a switching system because the table into which the packet switch must look to find out what to do with each packet is small For example, only those currently active virtual circuits have entries The packet switch can therefore process each packet very quickly If the total number of virtual circuits was limited to some number like 1024, you could set aside a block of memory and use the LCN as an index into the table A router, on the other hand, must have a complete table of all possible routes including, of course, the default route Clearly, you could make the table smaller by using the default route more often, but that just moves the problem to another router As we ve discussed, this table grows exponentially with the size of the network The addresses are neither hierarchical nor structured nicely to facilitate table searches In addition, we have the problem of keeping the tables updated The big efficiencies that switching shows over routing is not so much in table searching, where there is an advantage, but in maintaining the routing tables Most packet switch systems use static (manually built) routing tables or use OSPF Some use a separate control network to manage routing tables Therefore, the table update problem does not have the impact on a packet switching network as it does on a router-based network
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This subject is covered in detail in 30 However, two points need to be made All of these packet switching systems suffer from highly variable interpacket delay The connection-less systems suffer from greater variability or are rather less predictable This arises from two sources First, the queuing and routing functions in the routers or packet switches, and second from the fact that the output port/path may be busy, requiring that the packet be queued until its turn arrives The systems we have discussed have no priority schemes for handling one type of packet ahead of any other In order to handle real-time applications, such as voice-over IP, we must be able to control interpacket delay and ideally control absolute end-to-end delay This is for all practical purposes impossible with the Internet as it stands since it is a CLNS and made up of many different providers The virtual, circuit-based networks have a better chance since there is a relationship between packet switches To these, we need only add the capability to evaluate the internal congestion and that of its external path to the next packet switch Then, during call setup, the packet switches could determine before setting up the virtual circuit whether it supports the delay or bandwidth requirements of the requestor
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Multi-protocol Label Switching is an attempt to Band-Aid virtual circuits onto a CLNS IP network The idea is to append a label (called also a tag, in which case it is refereed to as tag switching) to each packet Since we already discussed X25 and LCNs, this tag is essentially an LCN Thus, the routers can create a virtual circuit across the network We now have created an association between routers The routers can make a determination with their peers as to whether they have the capability to support the Quality of Servic e (QoS) requested at virtual circuit setup time This additional capability leads to multiple priority queuing systems inside the routers and packet switches Unfortunately, it can t address the in-and-out queuing times and the absolute transmission delay between packet handlers One way to address this problem is to employ an ATM network (see 11 )
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One of the hottest vehicles used in the discussion of convergence between voice and data networks is the Internet Only 10% of all the data in the world is running across the Internet However, 90% of the data runs on corporate private and virtual private networks in 1999 This will probably be true for the next few years However, one major difference exists, these corporate networks are modelled after the Internet creating Intranets and Extranets Thus we must be very aware of what is happening in the world of data communications Moreover, the real time applications such as Voice over IP, streaming audio and streaming video applications are all placing added burden and traffic on the Internet As the convergence continues, many changes will take place These are the parts of the data network that draw the most attention
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30: Voice-over IP (VoIP)
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