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In the days of centralized systems, the host or mainframe was about the only smart device in the system The rest of the devices in the network were relatively dumb and could be reset when necessary by the host Figure 32-1 shows a typical centralized network configuration Most of the remote devices in the network were connected to the host by dedicated lines At the larger remote locations, a remote concentrator, or controller, is used to multiplex multiple terminals on the single data line At smaller locations, a single terminal may exist Dial-up lines may serve some low-traffic locations But, in any case, there were not multiple paths in the network It was strictly hub and spoke Network management consisted of monitoring the status of all phone lines and modems Dial backup for the dedicated lines was often used when high availability was required This technique is still used today to back up our Frame Relay connection Today, an ISDN line can provide 128 kbps dial backup
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Figure 32-1: Typical centralized network configuration As we have migrated from the centralized model to the distributed computing model, every element in the network is now intelligent Figure 32-2 depicts a typical distributed processing system The WAN technology isn t important per se in that it may be leased as a service from a network provider who will generally not allow our management system visibility into his network components What is important is that the WAN connection must be available in all of our locations, and that it provides an inexpensive high performance interconnection
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Figure 32-2: Typical distributed processing system If the WAN is of our own construction, then we consider it to be part of our overall network That is, we lease lines between locations and provide our own networking equipment, whether it is the Frame Relay switches or Routers In either case, the distributed system has many more elements to manage and most importantly that can be controlled managed The failure of any one of these elements could cause a significant number of our users to be cut off In Figure 32-2 , the Router may be taken to represent a router specifically, but in a general diagram like this it could be representative of other network elements such as a Frame Relay Access Device (FRAD), an ATM switch, a LAN bridge, or even a lowly hub
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Philosophically, there is a manager function and a managed function Their physical location in the network is not important Managed elements may be physically collocated with the management function, or may be at the far edge of the network The management function is typically located at the headquarters location However, it does not have to be that way As a case in point, the major network providers, such as AT&T, Sprint, and World Com, have distributed Network Operations Centers (NOC) The manager function is the user s interface to the network management system, and it is typically a GUI, which provides status, reports, and statistics gathered from the managed function Figure 32-3 depicts the logical relationship between the managed and manager functions The managed element, or object, is the actual device, whether it is a hub, bridge, or router The agent function is the program, or process, that runs on the managed system and provides the interface to the manager function Associated with the managed element or device is a set of attributes These attributes may include memory size and utilization, interface speed, traffic load, and so on, depending on the type of device
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Figure 32-3: Logical relationship between the managed and manager functions As one might suspect, there is a protocol defined between the management function and the agent that defines the format and content of each of the commands, responses, and traps RFC 1905 governs these protocols RFC 1907, in turn, governs the content of the SNMP messages SNMPv2, also known as MIB-II or mib-2, is the dominant definition set today and has superseded the SNMPv1 mib-1 Version 2 greatly expands the detail available from the managed agent The agent is the interface to the manager function, and may accept commands to set parameters (such as timeouts, thresholds, and, in some cases, system operational parameters, such as group membership addresses or routing tables), as well as provide status upon request The agent can also send unsolicited messages (called traps), indicating alarm conditions (The name trap comes from the capability of the manager function to set a threshold (trap), and should this condition be met, the agent sends off an unsolicited message All other messages sent by the managed function agent are a result of GetRequest or GetNextRequest queries)
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It should be clear that the data reported by a device like a hub is a lot less complex than that from something like a router The hub needs to report Ethernet collisions on the LAN, the number of frames handled, the number of errored frames, and so on The router, on the other hand, has routing tables, queue sizes, memory utilization, CPU utilization, and so on To keep this all straight, the management function must know about the content of each MIB on each device In other words, it must have a complete database identical to the one on the managed device so that when it receives the information, it can place it in the appropriate location When a new device is installed in the network, its MIB content and format must be loaded into the machine (typically, a host or a workstation), providing the management function Likewise, the agent software must be installed in the managed device This emphasizes an important point Setting up and running a network management system is more than a casual undertaking It requires a commitment on the part of management to provide the resources and purchase the appropriate tools
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