ean 128 parser c# Figure 10-8: Mapping using the address and DLCI in Software

Printer QR Code in Software Figure 10-8: Mapping using the address and DLCI

Figure 10-8: Mapping using the address and DLCI
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Figure 10-9: A typical mapping of the DLCI in a Fame Relay network By using this arrangement of DLCI mapping across the network, the network can also accommodate various other types of traffic, such as IBM Systems Network Architecture/Synchronous Data Link Control (SNA/SDLC) traffic, which is very timesensitive and times out if the traffic does not arrive in time Moreover, if a customer is using an older form of interactive terminal traffic using some older 2770/3770 bisynchronous protocols, these can be placed into the frame The concept of placing the traffic inside these frames is called tunneling Clearly what happens is the traffic is sent inside the frame transparent to the network No checks or validations are made on the data through the network, reducing some of the delays of data handling Also, while tunneling through the network, the data is actually encapsulated inside the Frame Relay frame, so the only place where the data is actually enacted on is at the two ends There is some minor overhead associated with the use of these other
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protocols, called subnet access protocols (SNAP), but the overhead is minimized This tunneling concept is shown in Figure 10-10 where the data is encapsulated inside the frame (tunneled)
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Figure 10-10: Traffic is tunneled in the Frame Relay frame using a small amount of overhead The term tunneling is getting a lot of press these days because of the Internet and the Internet Protocols (IP) using Virtual Private Networking (VPN) by tunneling through the Internet with a private link This will be discussed in a later chapter in greater detail but is shown in Figure 10-11 with TCP/IP tunneled into a Frame Relay connection
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Figure 10-11: TCP/IP traffic is tunneled into a frame
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Frame Relay Speeds
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As a means of keeping everything in order, it is appropriate to discuss the speed that can be achieved with the use of Frame Relay Although in the beginning of this chapter, it was stated that Frame Relay was designed for speeds up to T1/E1 (1544 2048 Mbps); it later evolved to speeds of up to 50 Mbps Actually, few end users have ever implemented Frame Relay at the higher speeds; this is more of a speed for the carrier community, but the need for stepped increments has always been a requirement for data transmission Therefore, Table 10-2 is used to show some of the speed increments typically used Other rates are possible in 4 Kbps increments, but implementations are normally done at the speeds shown in Table 10-2 Table 10-2: Typical speeds used in Frame Relay Frame Relay Access 56 Kbps (DS0 or ISDN) 64 Kbps 128 Kbps (ISDN) 128 Kbps (ISDN) 256 Kbps 256 Kbps 384 Kbps 512 Kbps 1544 Mbps 1544 Mbps 2048 Mbps
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Typical Committed Speed 32 Kbps 32 Kbps 64 Kbps 128 Kbps 128 Kbps 192 Kbps 256 Kbps 384 Kbps 512 Kbps 1024 Mbps
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Average additional Burst Speeds 24 Kbps 32 Kbps (Clear channel DS0 or ISDN) 64 Kbps 0 128 Kbps 64 Kbps 128 Kbps 128 Kbps 256 Kbps 512 Kbps 1024 Mbps
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1024 Mbps
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In most implementations, when a customer exceeds 256 Kbps access, the normal installed link for access is a T1 in North America at 1544 Mbps This is a pricing and an availability situation
Frame Relay Access
A link is installed between the end-user location and the network carrier s node The normal link speed is T1, although many locations can and do use ISDN or leased lines at lower rates Some customers may choose to install a local loop at speeds up to T3 (45 Mbps approximately) to support higher speed access and faster data throughput (In most implementations, when a customer exceeds 256-Kbps access, the normal installed link for access is a T1 in North America at 1544 Mbps This is a pricing and an availability situation) In many cases, the use of the T3 will also allow for consolidation on the same link Many of the carriers (and in particular the LECs) will offer the T3 access and allow Frame Relay throughput at rates up to 37 or 42 Mbps Now the Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) are offering flat-rate services and bundled capacities to be more attractive to their end users The ILECs are the local telephone companies with their installed base of services and facilities Often these ILECs are offering high-speed Frame Relay services LATA-wide (or statewide depending on the geographic topology of the state and LATA boundaries) all for competitively priced services Better yet, some of the ILECs offer high-speed Frame Relay at speeds up to 10 Mbps across the LATA at competitive rates on either T3 or an OC-1 The 0 10 Mbps bursts of data are designed for the very large customer, but they may fit smaller organizations needing broadcast (or near broadcast) quality for voice and video applications in the future With the pricing mechanisms in place by the ILECs, this is closer to reality than one might believe (possibly pre-2000) Figure 10-12 is an example of the connection installed at a large organization yet fed across the network by lower-speed feeds from branch offices at T1 and lower rates This scenario is likely the most common implementation for the near term but will shift as the pricing model becomes more conducive to the smaller organization
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