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Create QR in Software Figure 11-7: The virtual path and virtual channel switches process and re-map both elements

Figure 11-7: The virtual path and virtual channel switches process and re-map both elements
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The ATM Layered Architecture
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Nearly all documents describe the layered architecture of every protocol against the OSI model as a reference only The ATM architecture is no different when trying to compare what the protocol is doing Using the OSI model as a base reference, the ATM layers fall typically in the bottom two layers (data link layer and physical layer) of the architecture ATM has been designed to run on a physical medium such as SONET In Figure 11-8 , the ATM layer is shown as the bottom half of Layer 2 in its equivalency There is no real way to draw true one-to-one mapping of the ATM and OSI models, but for purposes of this document, it is done that way Now from the bottom half of the data link layer is ATM, but below the ATM layer is the physical layer such as SONET or some other physical media dependent layer (SDH, DS3, and so on)
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Figure 11-8: Comparing the OSI and ATM layered models Moving up the architectural map, we have the upper portion of Layer 2, the LLC equivalent, called the ATM adaptation layer Within this portion of the Layer 2 protocol stack, several sublayers are seen, depending on the services required For example, using Figure 11-9 as a reference, the uppermost portion of the layer is called the service specific convergence sublayer (SSCS) This portion of the protocol stack is used when mapping Frame Relay, SMDS, or another protocol to the ATM adaptation process Under the SSCS is the common part convergence sublayer (CPCS) The combination of the SSCS and the CPCS make up the convergence sublayer (CS) Convergence, as the name implies, is the changing and melding of the data into a common interface for the ATM networks Following the CS portion of the upper layer is the next sublayer called the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) The SAR is where the data is prepared into a 48byte payload prior to being submitted to the ATM layer below for the header The CS and the SAR combine to form what is known as the ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Table 115 shows the combination of the AAL types, the services being provided, and the working relationships between the AAL and the type of service
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Figure 11-9: Upper layer services of ATM Table 11-5: Types of AAL and Services Offered Class of Service A Timing Bit rates Connection Type AAL Synchronous Constant Connection Oriented Type 1 B Synchronous Variable Connection Oriented Type 2 Type of Service C Asynchronous Variable Connection Oriented Type 3-4 D Asynchronous Variable Connectionless Type 3-4-5
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ATM Traffic Management
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When dealing with traffic management, some of the goals of the ATM Forum and other developers include the following:
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ATM must be flexible It must meet the constantly changing demands of the user population These goals mean that the demands for traffic will rise or fall as necessary, and therefore managing this traffic is of paramount importance ATM must meet the diverse needs of the end-user population Many users will have varying demands for both high- and low-speed traffic across the network Using a quality of service (QoS) capability throughout the ATM network, a user can determine the performance and the capabilities of how the ATM network will meet their demands These demands must be met in terms of the delay or the actual delivery of the cells across the network Diverse needs are always going to be different, depending on the type of service (voice, data, video, or other traffic) Meeting these diverse needs for multiple users across the single threaded network is a major goal in traffic management and traffic delivery Cost efficiency is a must If ATM is truly to succeed, traffic management must also include the effective usage of all of the circuitry available ATM is designed to reduce the inefficient circuit usage by efficiently mapping cells into dead spaces, particularly when data is involved In the past, variable amounts of data would be sent across the network Although it is good for data because variations exist, such as the use of a fixed cell size and managing that fixed cell throughout the network in terms of its performance, buffering and delay become the crucial issues addressed Robustness in the event of failure or in the event of excess demand is a requirement of the traffic management goals If the network is to be readily available for all users to be able to transmit information on demand, then the network must be very robust to accommodate failures, link downtime, and so on Through this process, the managing of traffic must accommodate such diverse needs on a WAN
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Fair allocation of traffic capacity is essential on a fair and equitable basis The goal of the traffic management scenario is to ensure that no one user would dominate the network; rather, all users would have equal access and an equal shot at using the capacity on demand Specific goals of delivery can be achieved through committed information capabilities, but the intent is really to fairly arbitrate the traffic capacity and divide it up among multiple users Traffic management is a set of actions taken by network devices to monitor and control the flow of traffic on the network A highway, for example, is built to carry a certain amount of traffic Any more traffic at a given time (a one-hour period for example) causes congestion Congestion causes frustration and forces some traffic to overflow to other roads Each stream of traffic onto a network can carry a finite amount of flow If the flow exceeds the capacity (bandwidth), then actions must be taken to minimize delays (red lights and green lights are used for flow control), control losses, redirect or discard traffic, and prevent collisions
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When using ATM networks, traffic management becomes critical Too often the networks are built around fixed resources, which are finite and must be managed to provide equitable access and bandwidth to the end user Network suppliers and carriers are therefore under constant pressure to get the best utilization from the networks
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