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1: How Authentication Technologies Work
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they must be deactivated and a replacement device must be issued Similar problems with biometric systems tend to be rare Biometric systems can enroll multiple biometrics (for example, different fingers, different eyes) so a user can substitute (or re-enroll) another if an injury interferes with the usual trait However, it s possible for biometric systems to fail due to false rejections: for some reason, the legitimate user can t reliably produce an acceptable biometric reading Such failures may be due to inadequate training while the user was being enrolled, or they may be due to changes to the sensor s environment For example, Cathy s workstation might be moved into an area with different ambient noise levels, and the background sounds might interfere with previously reliable voice recognition
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Related to problem recovery, if an authentication system fails completely it can result in a population of valid users being unable to access a service or a resource If the service is a business function, such as eBay or Amazon, the cost of the downtime can be significant For services and resources that use a networked authentication server, its availability depends heavily on the reliability of the authentication server
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As time marches on, peoples roles change; they change jobs, employers, and locations Therefore, a system s total cost should incorporate the cost of removing each user that is added to the system These costs are rarely associated with the authentication factors being used; instead, the costs often reflect the presence or absence of centralized authentication servers and the degree to which authorization decisions are distributed to other computers (Smith 2002)
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As humans, we all use our natural abilities to recognize people through their voices, faces, and other characteristics Machines, on the other hand, must be programmatically instructed how to use the same observable information to perform human recognition Technology advances, particularly in biometrics, are helping to close the gap between human perception and machine recognition A priority goal of the use of biometrics is to provide identity assurance or the capability to accurately recognize individuals with greater reliability, speed, and convenience, as well as lower cost Biometric methods vary greatly and as the technology continues to improve, new options will also come to the fore This chapter introduces the idea of biometrics and the needs it fulfills, and then covers the fundamental concepts that apply to all biometric systems s 3 6 cover the major biometric technologies, fingerprint, hand geometry, face, voice, iris, retina, signature and keystroke, and how they perform 7 discusses esoteric biometrics
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References to biometrics, as a concept, date back over a thousand years In East Asia, potters placed their fingerprints on their wares as an early form of brand identity In Egypt s Nile Valley, traders were formally identified based on physical characteristics such as height, eye color, and complexion This information
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Biometrics
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helped identify trusted traders whom merchants had successfully transacted business with in the past The Old Testament also provides early (if not perfect) examples of voice recognition and biometric spoofing The Book of Judges (12:5-6) reports that the men of Gilead identified enemy Ephraimites in their midst by making suspected Ephraimites say Shibboleth When a suspect answered, Sibboleth, for he could not pronounce it right; then they seized him and slew him at the fords of the Jordan And there fell at that time forty-two thousand of the Ephraimites Apparently, the Gileadites had great faith in the accuracy of their biometric system An instance of biblically documented biometric spoofing occurred when Jacob fooled his blind, aged father, Isaac, into thinking smooth-skinned Jacob was Esau, his hirsute, older brother Aided by his mother, Rebekah, Jacob carried off this subterfuge by putting goat skins on his hands and on the back of his neck so that his skin would feel hairy to his father s touch The Book of Genesis (27:11-28) explains that Isaac, perhaps suspecting a ruse, said to Jacob, Come near, that I may feel you, my son, to know whether you are really my son Esau or not Jacob approached Isaac, who felt him and said, The voice is Jacob s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau Isaac should have trusted his inherent voice recognition skills, but he was impressed by the hairy arms of Jacob, and fell for the biometric spoofing Jacob thus became a case of a false accept (or false match), as discussed below In the nineteenth century, law enforcement professionals and researchers, spurred by the need to identify recidivist criminals, tried to find better ways to identify people In France, Alphonse Bertillon developed anthropometrics, or a method of taking multiple physical measurements of the human body as well as noting peculiar characteristics of a person (scars, tattoos) In the United Kingdom, attention focused on fingerprints, thanks, in part, to work done by police officials in British India As explained in future chapters, fingerprints came to be the recognized dependable identifiers for law enforcement purposes Interestingly enough, biometric technology, in the sense of automated methods of human recognition, first appeared as an application for physical access control This evolution did not track the growth of e-commerce but created more efficient and reliable authentication for physical access Biometrics as a commercial, modern technology has been around since the early 1970 s, when the first commercially available device was brought to market One of the first commercial applications was used in 1972 when a Wall Street company, Shearson Hamil, installed Identimat, a finger-measurement device that served as a time keeping and monitoring application Since this 1972 deployment, biometrics has improved tremendously in ease of use and diversity of applications The advancement of biometrics has been driven by the increased computing power at lower costs, better algorithms, and cheaper storage mechanisms available today
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