16: Government and Military Programs
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received three refusals to participate made on religious grounds These cases were resolved by an administrative decision to allow these persons to use alternative means of identification After implementation, DSS conducted a survey of program participants and found that the majority approve of the Connecticut biometric program more than 80 percent of respondents stated that they favored the program Connecticut s future vision for biometrics includes using the card in Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) transactions, point-of-sale devices for disbursement of medical services, and distribution of Food Stamp benefits through food retailers This vision offers more security and greater convenience for clients because they could use one card safely for multiple transactions affecting their lives At the same time, the concept of one card, multiple uses would also improve DSS record keeping and accountability
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In 1994, the Illinois legislature approved a study of the use of biometrics to detect and deter fraud in programs administered by the Illinois Department of Public Aid Officials tested retinal scanning and fingerprint imaging The fingerprint system passed the test while retinal scanning produced dissatisfaction In July 1997, a bureaucratic reorganization took place, and the department was partially incorporated into the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) This organizational change led to changes in information technology personnel and changes in philosophy Currently, the system is no longer operational
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In Arizona, fingerprint imaging is mandatory for all adults and minor parents receiving TANF, Food Stamps, and state general assistance As of March 2002, Arizona s database had about 300,000 recipient records; through March 2002, 82 public assistance cases have been closed due to fingerprint matches indicating multiple enrollments
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As many as 2,000 Afghan refugees per day at the Takhta Baig Voluntary Repatriation Center (VRC) in Peshawar, Pakistan have their irises scanned before receiving a one-time assistance package of money and supplies from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) The UNHCR administration
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This example draws heavily on Machiel van der Harst of BioID Technologies, Keeping an Eye on Afghan Refugee Aid Claims, a presentation delivered at the Biometrics 2002 Conference, November 8, 2002, London, England Mr Van der Harst also kindly answered the author s many questions See also One Claim Only for Afghans, Biometric Technology Today, October 2002
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had expressed growing concern over the recycle rate consisting of individuals who enrolled multiple times under different names to get the one-time assistance Organized crime helped encourage this practice and the UNHCR wanted to ensure that the UNHCR assistance is given only once to a deserving individual Although staff interviewed claimants to determine their eligibility, the large numbers of refugees processed (an estimated 15 million in 2002) made it extremely difficult to catch a multiple enrollee, even when a photograph of such a violator was available The UNHCR decided to test a solution an anonymous enrollment process using iris recognition to complement its existing procedures UNHCR officials and the contractors established an iris recognition enrollment center at the VRC, consisting of five enrollment stations, each staffed by an enrollment officer and an assistant Once a refugee family has been deemed eligible for the assistance package, all members of the family over age 16 have their right irises scanned for negative identification purposes the system searches all the iris templates for a match A negative result means they are not already enrolled in the system and are eligible to receive the one-time package Throughout this process, the refugees remain anonymous as the only personal data that the system records about them is their template Several lessons were learned from the test: Because of the conservative religious beliefs of many of the refugees, the staff curtained off the workstations to provide some privacy Women were used as the enrollment operators and assistants The staff first explained the iris recognition process to the family patriarch, as the other family members looked on Once the patriarch gave his consent, he was the first enrolled, with the assistant helping to show him where to look, and reminding him to put his hand over his left eye The patriarch in turn would allay the concerns of any family members upon their enrollments Many of the refugees found the equipment fascinating, particularly when it showed the eye of the enrollee on the computer screen Although some of the refugees (about 35 percent) thought the iris recognition equipment was used for medical purposes (to check the person s vision), 65 percent understood its purpose and word soon spread throughout the VRC Staff ran controlled tests in which someone already enrolled in the system would attempt to enroll in alias daily to ensure performance During the 19-day test, the system enrolled 11,500 refugees at five workstations, operating six hours a day According to the contractors, the failure to enroll rate was very low, (09 percent), attributable largely to disease During the controlled tests, the false reject rate was also 09 percent The actual results, provided to the UNHCR, have not been publicly released
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Biometrics are becoming more and more common in a wide variety of immigration and law enforcement applications The studies discussed next highlight the different ways biometrics are being used in these arenas
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