qr code generator c# library 17: Searching the FBI s Civil Files: Public Safety v Civil Liberty in Software

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17: Searching the FBI s Civil Files: Public Safety v Civil Liberty
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territorial criminal justice agencies have the capability to transmit electronically their fingerprint records to CJIS Currently, electronic submissions account for about 60 percent of the CJIS workload Thus, the criminal master file database is readily and easily searchable This database includes more than 132 million criminal records, representing 428 million individuals who have been arrested or convicted of a criminal offense in the United States While subject to great daily variability, CJIS receives an average of about 55,000 fingerprint searches and submissions a day for such processing On February 27, 2002, IAFIS processed a record 72,311 fingerprint submissions These submissions comprise 45 percent criminal records (about 20,000 to 25,000 criminal records per day) and 55 percent civil records (about 35,000 to 40,000 civil records per day) IAFIS identifies roughly 65 percent of the criminal records as recidivists, so CJIS is adding approximately 7,000 new criminal subjects per day in IAFIS Many of these are submitted as a result of traditional criminal investigation functions such as:
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The arrestee s booking process: Determining the identity of a person in police custody, and determining whether a person has a prior criminal record (Arrestees often provide false personal information) Fingerprint evidence from a crime scene: Determining whether a latent fingerprint left at a crime scene can be matched to anyone in the criminal files (The FBI can do approximately 1,000 latent fingerprint searches per day)
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However, this number also includes growing numbers of criminal history background searches requested by federal and state governments and others for various permit, license, and employment clearances, in addition to federal employment applications and military service Congress permits the FBI to charge a user fee for some of these search services For example, the INS is one of the FBI s largest customers for fingerprint checks for non-law enforcement purposes INS pays $25 to the FBI for each fingerprint check For fiscal year 1996, INS paid the FBI $325 million to conduct fingerprint checks for benefit applications, with approximately $195 million spent for naturalization applications If the criminal history background search reveals that the individual has past criminal involvement, the fingerprint record becomes part of the criminal master file database In the case of federal employees and military members, along with others, if the search reveals no criminal history, the fingerprint record is kept in the CJIS civil files database
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The CJIS civil files database maintains approximately 87 million civil fingerprint cards representing approximately 40 million people Some people have
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more than one fingerprint record in the database For example, many military veterans take employment with the federal government These individuals have been fingerprinted as a result of federal employment applications or military service, for alien registration and naturalization purposes, as well as for voluntary submission for personal identification purposes For example, Executive Order 10450, Security Requirements for Government Employees, dated April 27, 1953, requires federal employees in positions affecting the national security to submit fingerprints The fingerprints of other individuals who have to undergo background checks for other government mandated employment or licensure requirements do not currently repose in the FBI s civil files These individuals range from child care workers, lawyers, school bus drivers, state government employees, taxi drivers, and others For example, all applicants to the Virginia State Bar must submit a tenprint card as part of their bar application After the card is searched and returned with negative results, it is reposed in the applicant s file with the Virginia Board of Bar Examiners, an agency of the Supreme Court of Virginia The civil files database is not yet automated The vast bulk of its fingerprint records are still the paper and ink variety As noted, however, since May 2000, the FBI has taken steps to automate the database from Day One forward as it receives electronic versions that is, new fingerprint cards in electronic format Thus, over time, as CJIS receives more and more electronic images, the civil files will become an increasingly attractive database in which to search for national security, criminal investigation, or other purposes The FBI also has the option of scanning into the database the pre-May 2000 paper and ink fingerprint records tenprint cards to convert them into electronic format just as it did with the criminal master file However, as the FBI s experience with criminal tenprint cards demonstrates, scanning the existing civil files could be an expensive option ballparked at $100 million On the other hand, warehousing costs for the millions of paper tenprint cards are also high In the case of the US military, the FBI, with the DoD s blessing and funding, is scanning in the 21 million fingerprint records of enlisted personnel dating back to May 1990 This conversion costs about $125 per card, including the 10 fingerprint images and accompanying text To enhance searching capabilities, the FBI is electronically organizing a subfile, known as a Special Latent Cognizant (SLC) file, within the civil files database for these military members Over time, the FBI could organize an expanded SLC file of fingerprints of DoD employees, military members, and contractors with security clearances, or Department of Energy employees and contractors, and so on By recording civil fingerprint records electronically into the civil files database and by organizing extensive SLC files, or subsets, within it, the civil files database, like the criminal master file database, would become more easily and readily searchable
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