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Generation Code 128 Code Set B in Software This chapter reports on various examples of private sector use of biometrics

This chapter reports on various examples of private sector use of biometrics
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The examples are by no means all-inclusive Some of the programs analyzed did not enjoy success; InnoVentry s biometrically enabled cash checking system went belly-up in 2001 However, the programs discussed hopefully make it clear that the private sector is using biometrics in many diverse ways Many industries like the security, convenience, and efficiency that biometrics offer Casinos have aggressively incorporated biometrics into their security systems Others include financial institutions, ranging from a small credit union serving health care workers in the Virginia Tidewater to a financial giant like Charles Schwab University students, hospital workers, employees of a popular haberdashery, customers, and many others are participating in various biometric-based programs
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Julius Gatune provided extremely helpful research assistance in the preparation of this chapter This chapter s sections discussing the use of biometrics by the Riverside Health System Employees Credit Union, the Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, the University of Georgia, and Kroger Supermarkets are based on work published in Army Biometric Applications, by John D Woodward, Jr, Katharine W Webb, et al, RAND 2001 in Appendix B, Program Reports, reprinted by permission
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Casinos, highly incentivized to provide foolproof, yet noninvasive, security, have been leading-edge adopters of facial recognition The gaming industry also uses biometrics for access control and customer service applications For these reasons, the casino industry merits in-depth consideration as a case study
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There s a lot of money in Vegas and that attracts people who want it Somebody is always going to be trying to beat the house Earl Carroll, director of surveillance at the San Remo, quoted in Technology Has Spawned a Dramatic Improvement In Casino Surveillance, Gaming Magazine, December 12, 2000 A card-counting team can take a casino for $200,000 in an hour Robert Schmitt, CEO of Biometrica, Inc, quoted in Security Watch, May 2000 When asked why he robbed banks, career criminal Willie Sutton answered, Because that s where the money is The criminal class that hits the nation s casinos would no doubt give a similar answer except unlike banks, casinos offer free drinks, no-cost frills, more convenient hours, and other attractions Moreover, while Willie usually packed heat, in the form of a Thompson submachine gun You can t rob a bank on charm and personality casino thieves are usually the white collar variety who try to beat the casinos with creativity and technical gadgetry In a given year, an estimated $40 million in illegal gains walk out the doors of Las Vegas grand casinos Casinos want to stop this outflow The industry has been looking to the emerging technology of facial recognition as a way to stop the hemorrhaging Because casinos have been an early adopter of facial recognition, this chapter begins with a detailed analysis of why casinos have embraced this biometric technology Facial recognition, though a relatively new biometric technology, has received enthusiastic acceptance by the gaming industry In fact, many casinos were early adopters; Trump Marina, for example, installed a system in 1997 (well before facial recognition gained public notoriety in the aftermath of the Super Bowl surveillance episode in January 2001, discussed in 14) While casinos are highly secretive about their security measures, many deploy facial recognition systems According to the International Biometric Group, a US based biometric consulting firm, facial recognition is used in probably 75 percent of Las Vegas casinos to catch card counters or people who have been barred from casinos Beverly Griffin, co-owner of Las Vegas-based Griffin Investigations, which provides security systems for casinos, estimates the penetration rate at 50 percent
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18: Private-Sector Programs
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and growing (For more information, refer to Chris Jones Biometrics enhance security at casinos; airport use possible, at http://wwwbiometricgroupcom/ a_press/InBusinessLasVegas_Oct2001htm) Biometrica Systems Inc, recently reacquired by Viisage, claims to have sold its facial recognition systems to more than 100 casinos in the US, according to Jim Pepin, the company s vice president of sales and marketing in a Los Angeles Times article on February 2, 2001 Indeed, a partial listing of the casinos that have installed facial recognition systems includes Park Place Entertainment, Trump Casinos, MGM Mirage, Harrah s Entertainment, Isle of Capri Casinos, Venetian, and Bellagio Foxwoods Casino in Connecticut, the world s largest, also uses facial recognition At Trump Casinos, in Atlantic City, New Jersey, surveillance cameras linked to a facial recognition system record everything that happens in the casino every casino game, everyone who walks in and out the doors, and every hand that is dealt The cameras periodically move to different locations, which makes it difficult to locate and somehow disable them If Trump Marina s surveillance cameras zoom in on a suspicious character, the facial recognition program can capture his face, and convert it into template Casino security personnel may also add extra personal identification information, like sex and race, to bin (or further narrow) the search The facial recognition software then compares it to images of casino undesirables If the face provides a probable match, the database gives a wealth of investigative data on the suspected undesirable, including height, weight, aliases, and known associates Trump Casinos can also dial into the Casino Information Network, a system that allows it to exchange investigative data and photos with 50 other casinos around the world The network enables casinos to track teams of cheaters, who move from state to state and casino to casino Once an undesirable person or group is identified, casino security can then either decide to expel them or watch them more closely The casino industry s extensive deployment of facial recognition may seem surprising given criticisms of how ineffective the technology is For example, in May 2002, Barry Steinhardt, the director of the American Civil Liberties Union s Technology and Liberty Program, stated, Even with recent, high-quality photographs and subjects who were not trying to fool the system, the face-recognition technology was less accurate than a coin toss Under real world conditions, Osama Bin Laden himself could easily evade a face recognition system 2 In light of these concerns, why would a profit-oriented industry be among its biggest deployers Several reasons may help explain why the gaming industry gambled on facial recognition
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ACLU, Data on Face-Recognition Test at Palm Beach Airport Further Demonstrates Systems Fatal Flaws ACLU Says, May 14, 2002, http://wwwacluorg/news/2002/ n051402bhtml
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