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information in the card The database would contain the rest (for example, biometrics, certain transactional events, and relevant interactions with the government plus whatever other information the user deems convenient such as credit card memberships) From the standpoint of security and privacy, there are valid reasons for making it difficult for anyone to read the contents of the identity card itself More importantly, there are valid reasons for limiting access to the database of a person s datasets containing biometric data as well as information on the various comings and goings that having an identity card makes it possible to collect and track Minimizing what is on the card helps establish a system that can be guarded with tight access controls The remainder of this section discusses the various components of a national ID system: the card itself, the databases it feeds, optional authentication features of an ID card, and how to validate the ID process
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One essential requirement for the national identification card is for it to contain a unique identification alphanumeric for its holder, for example, the holder s name plus enough extra bytes to distinguish people with identical names But there is no requirement that the alphanumeric be easily readable One can imagine identity cards that are completely blank as are many proximity cards and similar products, such as ExxonMobil s SpeedPass, a proximity device used as a credit card substitute Blank cards have the great advantage in that they cannot be asked for casually The mythologized street cop hassling random passers-by for their national identification cards would be nearly impossible to envision under this scenario unless the street cop were willing to carry a device that could read such cards electronically Authorized people, conversely, could read the card and, with a small time lag, a photograph, and other personal identifying information could be presented to them So, there is no concrete need to store such information on the card itself In practice, it makes sense to include the person s photograph on the ID card If nothing else, it enables people to pick out which one is theirs when mixed (for example, a husband and wife toss them on the dresser prior to bedtime, wake up and cannot remember whose is whose) A photograph on the national ID card also permits authorities running checkpoints to verify, more or less, that the person presenting himself is holding the identity card that he is supposed to hold Although a networked checkpoint could also do this verification, such a facility would require sufficient bandwidth to return a good photograph quickly People who access the Web over dial-up phone lines know that even a 56K connection can take a second or two to return sufficiently detailed images (and in many parts of the United States, 56K is a luxury) Many checkpoints do not need to be connected to a network in real-time only those that do a hard check on holders or which use personal information in the data-
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19: Biometrics and the Feasibility of a National ID Card
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base to permit or deny access The rest, those that collect information for later analysis, can dial the network when the phone lines are not in use or store the information and transmit it later As such, the fundamental notion is that the card is read by a device which verifies that the information has been validated by the US government, which passes the contact information forward into a central database, and may return biometric information (to permit a fraud check on the card) as well as access permission Such a fraud check could be as basic as comparing the presenter s face with the face returned by the network, or as stringent as doing a one-to-one comparison of a biometric presented, such as a fingerprint or an iris, with its stored template Conversely, the national ID card should be designed so that it can only be read by checkpoint authorities, and not any official (for example, street policemen) for whatever reason This design feature can be achieved by legal and technical means Legal means would include making it a criminal offense for overzealous police officers to demand such ID cards unless certain criteria were met and providing for stiff penalties for violators Police officers could be required to give an equivalent Miranda-like warning when stopping individuals on the street: You have the right to refuse to produce your national identification card Exploiting technical means includes encrypting the alphanumeric; this step requires the card-reading device (CRD) to have decryption keys If there is only one such key, and a card-reading device falls into the wrong hands, the degree of tamper resistance required to hide the key indefinitely is likely to be very high, and perhaps not feasible Devious and clever cryptographers and electrical engineers do exist Alternatively, card-reading devices could forward encrypted traffic to one central point (plus backups) for decryption prior to entering in the database If few such points are guarded they should be safe; but it also means that checkpoints cannot control access in real-time if the network is down or otherwise very slow Access control is a network problem with or without encryption There are various ways to encode information onto an ID card, each with its own features and risks:
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A magnetic strip is easy to read and copy A bar code could also be swept by a wand and read, but if information is encrypted and authenticated, there will be too many bits to be read by a swipe Something that can read a two-dimensional barcode will be needed instead A proximity card is easy to read, and does not have to be removed from a wallet or purse to work The next generation of embedded chips can hold enough bits to carry encryption and authentication data Proximity cards can also be read without their holders knowing it a way of clandestinely tracking holders who may otherwise avoid checkpoints But this requires that people move past the checkpoint through a narrow opening such as a turnstile, and card-reading devices be powerful and sensitive enough to detect ID cards from a distance
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