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7: Esoteric Biometrics
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of chemical receptors that generate a difference in voltage when a particular chemical substance is present With the help of neural networks, it is possible to distinguish specific scent patterns9 and, thus, recognize an individual Current approaches use neural networks in which the artificial nose is trained to smell, rather than digitize, scents Chemical sensors are a related technology that has been getting recent attention These sensors operate at the molecular level and can be quite accurate; however, they are unable to cope with the dynamic range that real olfactory systems possess Hence, these sensors can be fooled by different (higher) concentrations of other substances Challenges remain Body odor is greatly affected by factors such as diet and emotional state Moreover, inconsistencies in chemical composition as a result of hormonal or emotional changes are also a problem These effects on recognition are unknown because the distinctiveness of body odor has yet to be demonstrated empirically However, ample precedent exists from the animal kingdom to believe it could be useful As Roger Caras has aptly noted, going back to the days of ancient Rome, hounds of enormously sophisticated scenting ability were found throughout the Mediterranean region These dogs were ancestors to the modern-day bloodhound An operational concern is odor masking, a significant industry in itself (far bigger than the biometric industry), and the common use of perfumes could have an impact on the operational feasibility of such a biometric Body odor can reveal other sensitive information, like health status or hygiene, which might be considered intrusive However, it is doubtful that many people would raise a stink over this biometric Research efforts to replicate the olfactory process of the nose have been ongoing for the past decade or so, mainly in Europe, though the bulk of research today is done in the United States Some of the institutions active in this area include University of Warwick, University of Southampton, Tufts University, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), University of California (Riverside), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research is focused on developing a nose in a particular domain, rather than a generalized artificial nose The United States Department of Defense and National Institutes of Health have funded some of this research A number of artificial noses are under development and some are available No biometric product has been produced yet Wired reports that a British developer, Mastiff Electronic Systems Ltd, makes a new sensor called Scentinel, but Senior Engineer Stephen McMillan says the product won t be ready for another three years Thus, it is a largely unknown business case
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Registratiekamer, At Face Value On Biometrical Identification and Privacy, September 1999, available at http://wwwcbpwebnl/documenten/av_15_At_face_valuehtm
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The number of possible applications is so large that even the mention of use for human recognition is absent in many publications Already application-specific products are gainfully employed in all kinds of environments One such application supposedly recognizes fruits and vegetables at a supermarket check out10 The broad spectrum of potential applications for an artificial nose include detecting land mines, monitoring air quality, surveilling for bio-terrorism agents, enabling remote medical diagnosis, as well as applications in the cosmetic, food, and beverage industry, and the future human parts replacement industry Within the realm of human recognition, body odor biometric could be used clandestinely that is, the data subject would not necessarily know that he or she is being monitored Thus, the esoteric biometric might be of interest for law enforcement, computer assisted tracking, or surveillance applications The challenges of producing a general-purpose application are huge, given how difficult it is to train a neural network to recognize only a handful of specific odors
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Ear shape has been considered a unique identifier since Alphonse Bertillon, revered in some quarters as the pioneer of human identification sciences, pronounced its uniqueness, It is, in fact, almost impossible to meet with two ears which are identical in all their parts 11 An American law enforcement professional, Alfred V Iannarelli, described as perhaps the foremost American advocate of ear print identification, has researched and published a book on ear identification, which is based on the ridges of ear tissue, as well as the ear s overall shape and geometry12 In the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and some states of the United States, evidence based on ear prints and ear images has been deemed admissible in various courts and has been used to convict criminals13 However, in the United States, a Washington state appellate court has ruled that ear print identification is not a generally accepted method of identification14 In State v Kunze (Court of Appeals of Washington, 1999), David Kunze appealed his convictions for aggravated murder and other crimes At his trial, Kunze was convicted, in part, on a latent ear print found on a wall at the home of the victim The main issue for the court was whether the State s witnesses could offer testimony, based on the relationship among some of the anatomical features of the external ear, that
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University of California, Berkeley, The Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing, 2002, available at http://www-bisccsberkeleyedu/BISCSIG/Rtechtm A Moenssens, Forensic-Evidencecom: Alphonse Bertillon and Ear Prints, 2001, available at http://wwwforensic-evidencecom/site/ID/ID_bertillionhtml A Moenssens, Forensic-Evidencecom, 2001 BBC News, UK Ear Print Catches Murderer, December 15, 1998, available at http://newsbbccouk/1/hi/uk/235721stm A Moenssens, Forensic-Evidencecom, 2001
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