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Tactile respond to feeling something Visual respond to seeing something Auditory respond to hearing something Electromyography (EMG) Pupil dilation Reflex of a knee when struck
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As you might have guessed, all biometric modalities are, in and of themselves, liveness tests Fingerprint sensors measure the intrinsic properties of a living body, such as index of refraction, capacitance, and acoustic impedance Hand, iris, and facial biometrics measure visual properties of a living body Speaker recognition uses challenge-response to obtain a sample of the voice However, we typically consider these to be weak liveness tests: weak because they are vulnerable to simulated biometric specimens The goal of liveness testing is to incorporate a robust test for liveness into a biometric sensor a test that yields results distinct from the biometric measurement Some biometric technologies, such as facial thermogram, vein pattern in back of hand, gait, and keystroke, may be considered stronger tests for liveness Some would consider these biometric identifiers more difficult to simulate artificially However, these technologies are not widely implemented and will need to be validated as reliable biometric identifiers Described below are a few examples of liveness testing products or methods that are currently in use in the biometric marketplace The first is the Sony Fingerprint Identification Unit (FIU-500), which tests for liveness by measuring the intrinsic properties of a living finger An optical fingerprint scanner, the FIU-500 incorporates a sensor that claims to measure the capacitance of the skin If the measurement is within norms for skin, the finger is assumed to be real, and the optical scan of the fingerprint is accepted for processing The second example demonstrates an approach to analyzing involuntary signals generated by a living body Developed at West Virginia University by Reza Derakhshani, Stephanie Schuckers, and others,6 this approach captures the time-varying perspiration pattern on a fingertip using a capacitive fingerprint sensor, see Figure 8-1 Because of perspiration, the specific values of a person s finger capacitance vary with time This variance is shown in the following line plot; the two plotted lines are the capacitance plots across a ridge of the finger,
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R Derakhshani, and S A C Schuckers, Determination of Vitality From A Non-Invasive Biomedical Measurement for Use in Fingerprint Scanners, Pattern Recognition (forthcoming)
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8: Biometric Liveness Testing
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Figure 8-1
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measured five seconds apart The local maximums in the plot represent the pores in the fingerprint ridge that are saturated with moisture As indicated by the sensor readings (solid = initial reading, and dashed line = reading after five seconds), the areas between the pores tend to fill up with perspiration over time as the moisture spreads across the ridges Thus, if the capacitance plots do not indicate the perspiration effect over time, the finger can be assumed to be fake or dead A patent for another interesting method to measure involuntary bodily signals was filed in mid-1998 by SmartTouch LLC The patent, entitled Anti-Fraud Biometric Scanner that Accurately Detects Blood Flow, 7 describes how to use two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photo-detector to determine whether blood is flowing through the finger or whether the finger is being artificially moved to simulate a pulse The device also checks to see if the background light
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Lapsley, et al, United States Patent 5,737,439 (issued April 7, 1998) Anti-fraud Biometric Scanner that Accurately Detects Blood Flow, Washington DC: US Government Printing Office
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level is above a threshold to determine if an external light source is being used to fool the device This liveness test basically implements what is known as pulse oximetry Pulse oximetry is used in the medical field to determine the oxygen content of a patient s blood In this test, however, the blood oxygen content information is ignored, while the pulse information is used8 The following describes what is taking place in the device: Current pulse oximeters measure the differential absorption of two wavelengths (colors) of light projected through the finger or other tissue It is based on two physical principles: that different colors of light are absorbed differently by oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin; and the fluctuating volume of arterial blood between the source and detector, which adds a pulsatile component to the absorption Tissue, bone, and venous blood absorb a relatively constant amount of light, producing an unknown, but constant, background absorption Each time the heart beats, a pulse of arterial blood flows to the tissue The influx of blood increases the absorption at both wavelengths The ratio of absorption at these two wavelengths varies with the oxygen saturation 9 The fourth example covers voluntary responses to a stimulus A rather simple test, at least one speaker verification system prompts a user to speak a random set of digits If the digits are not spoken in the right order, then the validation attempt is assumed to be a recording or some other form of deception Similarly, a facial recognition product prompts its user to blink or smile Software detects this change in expression, and then checks the face as usual A fifth and final example is a test for an involuntary response to a stimulus In the patent Detector for recognizing the living character of a finger in a fingerprint recognizing apparatus, 10 Peter Kallo and others lay out a method for measuring the dielectric response, as a function of frequency, of a finger to a small impulse current applied to the finger In this instance, the current is the challenge, and the finger s electrical reaction to the impulse is the involuntary response If the signals returned by the finger are outside predefined norms for human tissue, the finger is assumed to be a fake Guardware Systems Ltd has incorporated this patented liveness technique in their product line
Robert W Phelps, Pulse Oximetry and Its Advances, November 1999, available at http://wwwanesthesiologynewscom/specreps/an/sr0001/02reporthtm E Hill, and Stoneham, Practical Applications of Pulse Oximetry, available at http://wwwndaoxacuk/wfsa/html/u11/u1104_01htm Kallo, et al United States Patent 6,175,641 (issued January 16, 2001) Detector for Recognizing the Living Character of a Finger in a Fingerprint Recognizing Apparatus, Washington DC: US Government Printing Office
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