how to make a qr code generator in c# 12: Biometrics and Privacy in Software

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12: Biometrics and Privacy
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While critics of biometrics contend that this new technology is privacy s foe, the opposite side of the coin also must be examined: biometrics can be a friend of privacy whether used in the private or public sector Biometrics proves itself as privacy s friend when it is deployed as a security safeguard to prevent identity theft and to provide identity assurance Let s consider an example drawn from the financial services industry but applicable to almost any fraud-prevention scenario: It is well known that criminals eagerly exploit weaknesses with present access systems, which tend to be based on passwords and PINs, by clandestinely obtaining these codes They then surreptitiously access a legitimate customer s account or ATM The honest citizen effectively loses control over her personal account information Her financial integrity is compromised and her finances are gone because a criminal has gained unauthorized access to the information In effect, she has suffered an invasion of her privacy related to her financial integrity With biometric-based systems, identity theft, while never completely defeated, becomes more difficult for the criminal element to perpetuate Biometrics means less consumer fraud, which means greater protection of consumers financial integrity
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Biometrics becomes a staunch friend of privacy when it is used for access control purposes, thereby restricting unauthorized personnel from gaining access to sensitive personal information For example, biometrics can be effectively used to limit access to a patient s medical information stored on a computer database Instead of relying on easily compromised passwords and PINs, a biometric identifier is required at the computer workstation to determine database access The same biometric systems can be used for almost any information database (including databases containing biometric identifiers) to restrict or compartment information based on the need to know principle Biometrics also protects information privacy to the extent that it can be used, through the use of a biometric logon, to keep a precise record or audit trail of who accesses what personal information within a computer network For example, individual tax records would be much better protected if an IRS official had to use his biometric identifier to access them, knowing that an audit trail was kept detailing who accessed which records Far less snooping by curious bureaucrats would result
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Beyond protecting privacy, biometrics can be seen as actually enhancing privacy Several newly developed biometric technologies use an individual s physical characteristics to construct a digital code for the individual without storing
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the actual physical characteristics in a database According to George Tomko, this biometric encryption could use a person s fingerprint as one s private encryption or coding key We could use your fingerprint to code your PIN for accessing your bank machine The coded PIN has no connection whatsoever to the finger pattern Tomko explains the privacy enhancement by noting, What is stored in the database is only the coded PIN The finger pattern only acts as the coding key of that PIN, any PIN The fingerprint pattern, encrypted or otherwise, is not stored anywhere during the process It stays on your finger, where it belongs (Tomko 1998) The applications of this type of anonymous verification system are extensive Most notably, such a biometric-based system would seem to provide a ready commercial encryption capability Moreover, rather than technological advances eroding privacy expectations as we saw, for example, with the EPA s use of a special aerial camera in Dow, biometrics, as used to create an anonymous encryption system, would provide for privacy enhancement Many of the criticisms of biometrics are flawed They either miss the mark in that they should really be aimed at the explosive growth of contemporary information systems that are the result of economic, political, and technological change, or the criticisms fail to acknowledge the countervailing benefits of accurate identity verification As explained next, the use of biometrics might provide for even further individual privacy protections through a phenomenon known as biometric diversity
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While biometrics is an important technological achievement, its use should be kept in perspective: Big Brother concerns implicate far more than biometrics The broader underlying issue is not controlling biometrics but rather the challenge of how law and policy should control contemporary information systems and the data they hold As one scholar has explained, computers and the matching they perform permit various fragments of information about an individual to be combined and compiled to form a much more complete profile These profiles can be collected, maintained, and disclosed to organizations with which the individual has no direct contact or to which the individual would prefer to prevent disclosure (Mell 1997) Biometrics should be viewed as an appendage or footnote to this enormous challenge Critics also overlook the many legitimate reasons why the government needs to use biometric applications Biometric applications related to national security and prison management are easy to grasp; for example, all of us want solid guarantees that only the appropriate personnel can access nuclear materials and that serial killers do not slip out of prison by masquerading as someone else These same concerns related to the use of false identity really apply across the board; for example, the government has a legitimate purpose in preventing fraud in the programs it administers
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