how to make a qr code generator in c# 12: Biometrics and Privacy in Software

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12: Biometrics and Privacy
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For example, fraud is a significant issue in public sector programs A persistent problem of entitlement programs is fraud perpetrated by double dippers individuals who illegally register more than one time for benefits using an alias or otherwise false information about themselves Many experts believe that fraud in entitlement programs, such as welfare, can be as high as 10 percent, which translates in dollar terms to more than $40 billion a year in potential savings To the extent critics have concerns about function creep, two points need to be made: First, as explained, the critical and key function creep issue is controlling information systems, not controlling a nine-digit number or an x-byte numerical template used as a biometric identifier Second, issues specifically related to biometrics can be addressed within our present legal and policy framework We do not need a new Law of Biometrics paradigm; the old bottles of the law will hold the new wine of biometrics quite well In this regard, legislative proposals, particularly at the federal level, should be considered and studied, particularly if the threat of function creep or the emergence of an undisciplined secondary market is real With respect to private sector use of biometrics, viable options exist for our national and state policymakers
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It is important to address whether a specific biometric technology will come to dominate biometric systems In other words, will the biometric future feature centralization, whereby one biometric would be used for multiple applications, or will we see biometric diversity or biometric balkanization where multiple biometrics are used for multiple applications At present, fingerprinting has an early lead in terms of industry presence with an estimated one-third of the biometric market The popularity of fingerprinting is explained primarily by its distinctiveness or individuality, the fingerprint s long acceptance by the public, and the extensive competition in the finger imaging market leading to rapidly decreasing user costs, among other factors For example, with regard to public acceptance of fingerprinting, a survey of 1,000 adults revealed that 75 percent of those polled would be comfortable having a finger image of themselves made available to the government or the private sector for identification purposes This high acceptance is arguably underscored by more than half of those surveyed saying they had been fingerprinted at some point in their lives Only 20 percent thought that fingerprinting stigmatizes a person as a criminal Despite this early lead, however, it is not clear that fingerprinting will emerge as the biometric of choice It is tempting to predict that fingerprinting will dominate or that another biometrics will come to monopolize the market
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because of its perceived advantages However, this view overlooks one of the great strengths of the current biometric market: it offers many technologies that allow maximum choice for users A more likely outcome is that biometric diversity will result: multiple biometrics will be deployed not only by various public and private sector actors but multiple biometrics will also be deployed by the same actor depending on the specific mission Arguably, this biometric diversity can take on a sinister spin Individuals will be forced to give up various identifying pieces of themselves to countless governmental and corporate bureaucracies In an Orwellian twist, the retina, the iris, the fingerprints, the voice, the signature, the hand, the vein, the tongue, and presumably even the body odor will all be extracted by the State and stored in databases The State will then use this biometrics to monitor our lives and degrade our anonymity and autonomy Yet biometric diversity offers at least two key advantages for the protection of privacy First, biometric diversity offers maximum flexibility to the private or public end user that will use the technology The actor can tailor a specific biometric program to meets its own unique mission within its resource constraints Depending on the situation and the degree of accuracy in identification required, the optimal biometric for that use can be selected For example, the best biometric used to verify access to a government entitlements program might differ from the best biometric used by a university to ferret out undergraduate examination fraud, which in turn might differ from the best biometric needed in a prison environment where hostile users will go to extreme lengths to foil identification efforts Similarly, voice verification might be ideal for determining account access over the telephone, while signature dynamics might be better suited for the tax authorities monitoring returns Second, biometric diversity might actually mean a synergy of the actor s interest and the individual s concerns Consider, for example, the public sector use of biometrics: Government agencies basically want dependable, workable biometrics to achieve their primary purpose verifying or identifying an individual The individual essentially wants the same thing, plus protection of private information If different technologies are used for different situations, citizens will not face the necessity of reporting to the government s biometric central for enrollment By allowing the agencies maximum choice of biometric technologies, the individual gains greater protection for private information Biometric diversity could also lead to the safeguard of biometric compartmentation that would be achieved through the use of different biometric identifiers For example, an iris pattern used for ATM access would be of little use to the Connecticut Department of Social Services that uses fingerprinting, just as a finger geometry pattern captured at Disney World would be of little value to tax authorities investigating phony signatures on fraudulent tax returns from the Sunshine State
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