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Membrane Biophysics
In Chaps 7 and 8 we learned some basics of lipids and cell membranes In this chapter we explore membrane biophysics Biological membranes do more than just providing a barrier between the cell and the outside world, and they are made up of more than just lipids
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CHAPTer OBJeCTiVeS
In this chapter, you will
review the basic structure of biological membranes Learn the principles that govern self-assembly in lipid bilayers Learn about the fluid mosaic model study phase transitions in lipids and the forces that affect them Gain an understanding of the energetics of membrane permeability Learn about active and passive transport across membranes
B i o p h y s i c s D emys tifie D
Membrane Functions
Membranes play important biological functions They provide a barrier between the cell and the outside world, and regulate what can enter the cell and what leaves it Many organelles within the cell are themselves membrane bound, providing an isolated biophysical environment even within the cell In eukaryotes a membrane surrounds the nucleus, keeping the activities of DNA (transcription and replication) separate from the rest of the cell Membranes also provide surfaces on which biochemical reactions take place One such example is the endoplasmic reticulum, a network of membranes and tubules on which synthesis of proteins and lipids occurs Membranes also provide anchorage points for the cytoskeleton which gives shape and rigidity to cells and plays a role in intracellular transport of biomolecules
Membrane Structure
The main structural components of biological membranes are amphipathic lipids (see Chap 7) Although biological membranes also contain carbohydrates and proteins (some membranes contain as much as 50% protein), the primary character of biological membranes is derived from its amphipathic lipids The most common lipids found in biological membranes are two-chain phospholipids These are molecules with a phosphate head group, attached to a two-chain fatty acid The amphipathic character comes from the combination of the hydrophobic, hydrocarbon tails, along with the hydrophilic phosphate head group In biological membranes, the phospholipids arrange themselves into a bilayer, in which the hydrocarbon tails face each other and are isolated from the surrounding environment by the phosphate head groups See Fig 11-1
Figure 11-1 The basic structure of a biological membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with hydrophobic tails in the center of the bilayer and hydrophilic heads at the surfaces Biological membranes also typically contain proteins, nonpolymeric lipids such as cholesterol, and carbohydrates typically in the form of glycolipids (a carbohydrate attached to a lipid)
chapter 11 M e M B r a n e B i o p h y s i c s
Phospholipid Behavior and Self-Assembly
Phospholipids exhibit a physical behavior that makes them ideal for the formation of membranes Biophysicists call this behavior self-assembly Self-assembly means that the molecules will aggregate together to form various structures without need for energy input, catalysts, or other helper molecules Let s first look at self-assembly for single-chain phospholipids and then for double-chain phospholipids
Single-Chain Phospholipids and Micelle Formation
If we slowly add a single-chain phospholipid to an aqueous solution, at first the lipid molecules are dispersed among the water molecules Later, as the concentration of lipids is increased, a point is reached where the lipid molecules merge together forming aggregates called micelles A micelle is simply a lipid ball with the hydrocarbon chains pointed in toward the center, as illustrated in Fig 11-2 The concentration, at which the lipids self-assemble into micelles, is called the critical micelle concentration (CMC) The aggregation process is highly cooperative Once the critical micelle concentration is reached, any further lipid added to the solution either associates with existing micelles or forms new micelles This causes the concentration of micelles to increase, while the concentration of free lipid molecules remains relatively constant, as shown in Fig 11-3 There are a number of forces that contribute to self-assembly in micelle formation As the hydrocarbon tails approach one another, dispersion forces (see Chap 6) provide a strong attractive force pulling them together Close association of the tails is also favored by the hydrophobic effect As the tails are
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