M E M B R A N E B I O P H y S I C S in .NET framework

Print QR Code in .NET framework M E M B R A N E B I O P H y S I C S

11 M E M B R A N E B I O P H y S I C S
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Figure 11-6 Lipid bilayers that contain only saturated lipids are able to pack the lipids much closer together than bilayers that contain unsaturated lipids or a mixture of saturated and unsaturated lipids
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The main forces that hold the bilayer together are the hydrophobic effect and dispersion forces The hydrophobic effect is driven by entropy: water has more freedom of movement when it stays away from hydrophobic portions of the lipid molecules Bilayer formation is favorable because it keeps the hydrophobic lipid tails away from the water, and the polar lipid head groups facing the water Dispersion forces are due to synchronous fluctuations in the electron density of the atoms within the hydrophobic tails The electron densities fluctuate rapidly and in synch with each other At any given moment, in a place where one tail has a slightly positive charge an adjacent tail has a slightly negative charge This causes the hydrophobic tails to attract one another giving the membrane strength and stability
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Fluid Mosaic Model
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Our current working model of biological membranes is the fluid mosaic model, which was first proposed by Singer and Nicolson in 1972 The model states that biological membranes are composed primarily of a phospholipid bilayer Other
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B i o p h y s i c s D e mys tifie D
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Figure 11-7 Fluid mosaic model of biological Membranes The phospholipids in the bilayer form a mosaic with other molecules making up the membrane These molecules and the phospholipids are free to move about in two dimensions, that is, in parallel with the bilayer
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molecules that are part of the membrane structure, such as proteins, glycoproteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates, form a mosaic with the lipid molecules See Fig 11-7 This is in contrast to earlier biomembrane models in which the lipids were thought to form a monolayer or in which proteins were also thought to form one or more layers within the membrane In the fluid mosaic model, the lipids and other molecules are free to move about within the two-dimensional mosaic
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Phase Transitions in Phospholipid Bilayers
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Phospholipids in bilayers and micelles can exist in a solid or fluid phase We will focus our discussion on bilayers, since that is what we find in cell membranes, but the basic concepts apply also to micelles The solid phase is called the gel phase In the gel phase the bilayer is still somewhat flexible and permeable, but lipid molecules (and other molecules within the mosaic) are fixed to a particular position within the two-dimensional mosaic In simple terms, they don t move around within the membrane The fluid phase is called the liquid crystalline phase In the liquid crystalline phase phospholipids next to each other are able to change positions, sometimes as often as millions of times per second In this way, any given lipid molecule is able to gradually diffuse and move about in two dimensions within the plane
chapter 11 M e M B r a n e B i o p h y s i c s
of the bilayer However, in both the gel and the liquid crystalline phases, lipid molecules generally do not move from one layer to the other, since this would involve a large, positive Gibbs energy change Proteins and other molecules in the mosaic also move about within the plane of the bilayer
The Melting Transition
Phase transitions in lipid bilayers can be temperature induced Therefore (as we saw with DNA unwinding) the transition is sometimes referred to as melting The melting transition in phospholipid bilayers is highly cooperative, meaning that it tends to happen in an all-or-none, two-state manner Figure 11-8 shows a typical melting curve for a sample of liposomes The melting temperature Tm is the halfway point of the transition Below the melting temperature the lipids are in the gel state; above the melting temperature they are in the liquid crystalline state The transition results from the disruption of the dispersion forces among the hydrocarbon tails The dispersion forces otherwise hold adjacent phospholipids together The lipid bilayer itself remains intact due to hydrophobic forces, which can be further strengthened by counterions along the phosphate surfaces of the bilayer
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