When two dipoles interact, we have a total of four charges interacting, as in Visual Studio .NET

Drawing QR Code JIS X 0510 in Visual Studio .NET When two dipoles interact, we have a total of four charges interacting, as

When two dipoles interact, we have a total of four charges interacting, as
QR Code Encoder In VS .NET
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in .NET applications.
Scanning QR In .NET Framework
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
compared with three charges in the case of a point charge and a dipole
Create Bar Code In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in VS .NET applications.
Bar Code Scanner In .NET
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
When two dipoles interact, there are two different angles to consider for
Print QR Code In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create QR image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Paint QR Code JIS X 0510 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in ASP.NET applications.
each dipole, as compared with a single angle to consider in the orientation between a point charge and a dipole The two angles to consider are 1 Each dipole can orient itself toward or away from the other dipole (as we also saw in Fig 6-6 with a charge and a dipole) 2 Each dipole can turn to the right or left (clockwise or counterclockwise) relative to the other dipole In the case of a point charge and a dipole, there was no turning to the right or left There was only the angle toward or away from the point charge This is
Generate QR Code JIS X 0510 In VB.NET
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Generate Data Matrix 2d Barcode In VS .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in .NET framework applications.
B i o p h y s i c s D emys tifie D
2D Barcode Generator In .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create 2D Barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Generate Bar Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET framework applications.
because electrostatic interaction depends only on the distance from charge to charge, and turning a dipole clockwise or counterclockwise relative to a point charge does not change the distance from the point charge to each end of the dipole; only turning the dipole on an angle toward or away from the point charge changes this distance However, turning a dipole clockwise or counterclockwise relative to another dipole will change the distances from each end of one dipole to each end of the other dipole So dipole-dipole interactions must consider two different angles for each dipole, making a total of four angles See Fig 6-7
Code 128C Maker In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
EAN8 Generation In .NET
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create EAN / UCC - 8 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
b1 d1
GS1 - 13 Recognizer In VB.NET
Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
Code 39 Full ASCII Creation In Java
Using Barcode generator for Java Control to generate, create Code 39 Extended image in Java applications.
a1 x
Bar Code Creation In None
Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications.
Print 1D Barcode In Java
Using Barcode printer for Java Control to generate, create Linear 1D Barcode image in Java applications.
b2 d2
Code 128C Generation In Java
Using Barcode generation for Android Control to generate, create Code 128A image in Android applications.
GTIN - 13 Decoder In .NET
Using Barcode recognizer for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
a2 x
Data Matrix Printer In Objective-C
Using Barcode maker for iPad Control to generate, create ECC200 image in iPad applications.
DataMatrix Recognizer In None
Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
FIguRE 6-7 Dipole-dipole interactions Two angles must be considered for each dipole: one angle in the xy plane between the x-axis and the dipole, and the other angle in the yz plane between the y-axis and the dipole to keep things simple, we orient the axes so that the distance r between the two dipoles is along the x-axis
The potential energy between two dipoles can be written as U= d1 d2 F ( 1 , 1 , 2 , 2 ) e r3 (6-8)
Compare this equation with Eq (6-5) To emphasize the form of the potential energy function, we write simply F(a1, b1, a2, b2), where F is some function of the four angles a1, b1, a2, b2 (see Fig 6-7) The important points to remember here are
The potential energy falls off with the cube of the distance r3 as com-
pared with the square of the distance for a charge-dipole interaction, and compared with 1/r for a charge-charge interaction This demonstrates the trend mentioned earlier that when multiple charges interact
chapter 6 F o r c e s A F F e c t i n g c o n F o r m At i o n i n B i o L o g i c A L m o L e c U L e s
simultaneously, the more charges there are, the higher the power on the inverse relationship with distance, and the shorter the range of interaction
For a fixed orientation between dipoles (such as one may find in a
folded protein or molecular complex), the potential energy depends on this orientation, and the orientation is defined by four different angles
Thermal Averaging in Dipole-Dipole Interactions
When the orientation between two dipoles is not constant, but is allowed to move freely by the random thermal motion of molecules, then thermal averaging can be done using the Boltzmann distribution to calculate the average over all possible orientations, as was noted for the charge-dipole interaction For the case of dipole-dipole interactions, the average potential energy is given by U = 2 d12 d22 3 e kT r 6 (6-9)
Notice that (as was the case with a charge-dipole interaction) thermal averaging has doubled the power on the inverse distance dependence compared with the fixed orientation case Dipole-dipole potential energy can indeed be significant, but only at very short distances
Induced Dipoles
The electron cloud of a neutral, nonpolar molecule can be distorted in the presence of an electric field so that the molecule becomes polar This is called an induced dipole The electric field that induces the polar quality of the molecule typically comes from a nearby ion or dipole We can measure the tendency of the electron cloud of an atom or molecule to be distorted from its normal (nonpolar) shape by an electric field We call this measurement polarizability, defined as the ratio of the induced dipole moment to the electric field strength
p =
(6-10)
Notice that what this equation says is that a large degree of polarizability means a given electric field induces a large dipole moment A small degree of polarizability means the same given electric field induces a small dipole moment
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.