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Refer to the text in this chapter if necessary Answers are in the back of the book 1 The process of converting the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule into an amino acid sequence in a polypeptide is called what A Transcription B Translation C Transformation D Trans fat 2 Carbohydrates contain what three elements A Carbon, hydrogen, and rategen B Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon C Oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen D CHNOPS 3 A major role of lipids is what A Muscle contraction B Phosphorylation of DNA C structure of phospholipids D structure of membranes 4 Carbon atoms usually form how many covalent bonds A 2 B 4 C 6 D 8 5 An amino acid is a molecule with what functional groups A An amine and hydrochloric acid B A hydroxyl and an amine C A protein and a polypeptide D A carboxyl and an amine 6 DNA and RNA are examples of A nucleic acids B nucleotides C proteins D lipids 7 DNA is a A heteropolymer B homopolymer
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C peptide polymer D ribonucleotide polymer 8 The helical shape of DNA is due primarily to A aromatic side chains B base stacking C hydrogen bonds D van der Waals constant 9 Proteins are involved in A DNA synthesis B enzymatic processes C lipid metabolism D all of the above 10 Which of the following is not true about proteins A Proteins are polymers of amino acids B polypeptide chains fold up into a specific shape necessary for the protein s function C Transfer RNAs carry amino acids to where they are needed for protein production D Peptide bonds hold base pairs together
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The Cell
We want to dig deeper into the physics of biomolecules In order to do so, we must first understand the context in which biomolecules function That context is almost always the cell We also want to lay a foundation to study the physics of the cell itself With this in mind, in this chapter we review the main structures of living cells and give you a basic understanding of the relationship between cell structures and the biomolecules they are made of
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In this chapter, you will
learn the basic concepts of cell theory learn the structures of the cell and their functions learn the relationship between biomolecules and cell structures
B i o p h y s i c s D e mys tifie D
What Is a Cell
So what is a cell A cell is a pouch or sack of biomolecules that is (or was) alive A cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can be considered alive If you break the cell into anything smaller, it s just a bunch of biomolecules and not considered alive The pouch or sack is part of the cell itself and is called the cell membrane So what do we consider alive Something is alive if it can take in matter and energy and use that matter and energy to do work on its surroundings, to grow, and to reproduce itself This definition leaves out certain things, about which scientists are still debating whether they should be considered organisms For example, a virus is a DNA molecule surrounded by a protein coat Should it be considered alive Viruses reproduce, but they do not grow And viruses only reproduce with the aid of a cell they ve infected Without a host cell a virus can t do much of anything So for now, for our purposes, we will consider living things to be only those things that meet our definition s criteria concerning matter and energy and growing and reproducing (Note: This definition of alive is not meant to exclude individual organisms or individual cells that may be at some phase of life lacking in one of these features Eg, an adult human being stops growing in terms of their body height, but their cells are still growing and reproducing, so the person is alive Or, eg, an individual cell may stop reproducing, while other cells in the same organism are still reproducing and the individual cell that has stopped is still otherwise functioning taking in matter and energy to do work and so that individual cell is alive) Cell theory was formally developed in 1839 by M J Schleiden and T Schwann The theory was based not only on Schleiden s and Schwann s own microscopic observations, but also the observations and ideas expressed by others going as far back as the mid- to late-1600s, when scientists including Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek began using microscopes to examine living things Cell theory says (1) all living things are made of cells and (2) all cells come from preexisting cells A quick note regarding the second point: many people have tried unsuccessfully to create a living cell from biomolecules As of this writing, it is still the case that all living cells we know of came from previously existing cells The process by which cells come from preexisting cells is called cell division In cell division, a cell replicates its DNA and then splits into two daughter cells Each of the daughter cells gets a copy of the replicated DNA
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