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Note: The string &File we entered for the menu appears in the Text property.
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Your application now contains a File menu on the menu bar. In the source code, the menuFile variable is created as a private MenuItem object within the class.
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private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuFile;
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The InitializeComponent method now contains additional lines to initialize this menu and add it to our MainMenu object. The relevant lines are extracted here.
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private void InitializeComponent() { . . . this.menuFile = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem (); . . . // // mainMenu1 // this.mainMenu1.MenuItems.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem[] { this.menuFile } ); // // menuFile // this.menuFile.Index = 0; this.menuFile.Text = "&File"; . . . }
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Note in particular how the File menu is added to our mainMenu1 object by creating an array of MenuItem objects with menuFile as the only entry. This code also sets an Index property, which we will discuss in the next section. 3.2.3 ADDING THE DROPDOWN MENU So far, we have added the main menu and inserted a File menu in it. Next we will create the dropdown menu that appears when this menu is clicked.
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CREATE THE FILE DROP-DOWN MENU Action 1 Create a Load menu item within the File menu. Use the text &Load.
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Result The Load menu appears as the first item in the drop-down list for the File menu.
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a. Make sure the designer window is displayed. b. Click on the File menu. c. Type in &Load below the File menu where it says Type Here 2 Display the Properties window for the Load menu item and set the following property values:
Settings
Property (Name) Shortcut Text Value menuLoad CtrlL &Load
The modified properties are displayed in the Properties window. Note: The Shortcut property defines a keyboard shortcut, in this case Ctrl+L, that immediately invokes the menu as if it were clicked, without actually displaying the menu. The access key Alt+L for this menu can be used to select this menu from the keyboard after the File menu has been displayed. A menu separator is added to the dropdown menu.
Add a menu separator after the Load menu.
How-to
Enter a dash character as the next menu item.
Note: By definition, a menu separator in .NET is a MenuItem with its Text property set to a single dash.
We will leave the (Name) of the separator as the default value.
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CREATE THE FILE DROP-DOWN MENU (continued) Action 4 Finally, add the Exit menu item.
Settings
Property (Name) Text Value menuExit E&xit
Result The File menu is now complete.
Note: Of course, the Windows keyboard shortcut Alt-F4 can always be used to close the application. There is no need to add this keystroke to our menu as it is imposed by the operating system.
As you might expect, the code generated for the MainForm.cs file uses MenuItem objects to add this dropdown list to the File menu, with the objects initialized in the InitializeComponent method. The relevant code from the source file is shown here.
private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuLoad; private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuItem1; private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuExit; . . . private void InitializeComponent() { . . . this.menuLoad = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem(); this.menuItem1 = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem(); this.menuExit = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem(); . . . // // menuFile // this.menuFile.Index = 0; this.menuFile.MenuItems.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem[]{ this.menuLoad, Create File this.menuItem1, drop-down this.menuExit}); menu this.menuFile.Text = "&File"; // // menuLoad // this.menuLoad.Index = 0; this.menuLoad.Shortcut = System.Windows.Forms.Shortcut.CtrlL; this.menuLoad.Text = "&Load"; Define // keyboard // menuItem1 shortcut //
MENUS
this.menuItem1.Index = 1; this.menuItem1.Text = "-"; // // menuExit // this.menuExit.Index = 2; this.menuExit.Text = "E&xit"; . . . }
Create menu separator
Set menu index
c d e
Some aspects of this code are worth highlighting: As we saw for our main menu, the items to appear under the File menu are added by constructing an array of the desired MenuItem objects and assigning them to the menuFile.MenuItems property. Note that this array does not establish the order in which these items will appear. The display order is established by the menu index assigned to each object. The Ctrl+L shortcut for the Load menu is defined through the use of the System.Windows.Forms.Shortcut enumeration. This line creates our separator menuItem1 by setting its Text property to a dash (-). The Index property defines the zero-based position of the menu item within its parent menu. This position establishes the order in which menu items are displayed. In our code, the dropdown list for the File menu should display the Load menu, then a separator, and then the Exit menu. This is done by setting the Index property for these objects to 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Our code uses a few of the properties provided by the MenuItem class. Other properties will be used as we progress through this and subsequent chapters. An overview of the MenuItem class appears in .NET Table 3.3. If you wish to see the application so far, compile and run the code to view the File menu. You will notice that the menu bar contains only a single item, which is perhaps a bit boring. We do not want a boring application, so we will double the number of menus in our next section.
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