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PCI Bridge Design Manual, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, 8 Proceedings of the 12th US Japan Bridge Engineering Workshop, October 1996, Buffalo, New York Recording and Coding Guide for the Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation s Bridges, Report No FHWA-PD-96-001, Washington, DC, 1995 Rehm, KC, Future of Bridge Design, Bridges, January/February 2007 Roeder, C W, K E Barth, A Bergman and R A Christopher, Improved Live-Load De ection Criteria for Steel Bridges, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Interim Rep 20-07/133, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2001 Saadeghvaziri, M Ala, Finite Element Analysis of Highway Bridges Subjected to Moving Load, Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol 49, No 5, 1993 Saadeghvaziri, M Ala, Response of Struve-Slough Bridge Under the Loma Prieta Earthquake, Second Workshop on Bridge Engineering Research in Progress, Reno, NV, October 1990 Saadeghvaziri, M Ala and R Hadidi, Cause and Control of Transverse Cracking in Concrete Bridge Decks, Final Report, FHWA-NJ-2002-19, December 2002 Saadeghvaziri, M Ala and Feizi Bakhtiar, Bene cial Aspects of a Multi-Hazard Approach to Design for Highway Bridges, Proceedings, Sixth National Conference on Bridges and Highways, Charleston, SC, July 2008 Saadeghvaziri, M Ala and R Hadidi, Transverse Cracking of Concrete Bridge Decks: Effects of Design Factors, Journal of Bridge Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 10, No 5, 2005 Seismic Retro tting Manual for Highway Bridges, Federal Highway Administration, Publication No FHWA-RD-94-052, Washington, DC, 1995 Standard Speci cations for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Of cials, Interim Revisions, 1st Edition, Washington, DC, 2002 Standard Speci cations for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traf c Signals, 6th Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Of cials, 2008 Timoshenko, S P and Woinowsky-Krieger S, Theory of Plates and Shells McGraw-Hill International Edition, 2nd Edition, 1959 Walker, W H and R N Wright, Criteria for the De ection of Steel Bridges, Bulletin for the American Iron and Steel Institute, No 19, AISI, Washington, DC, 1971
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Applications of Bridge Design and Rating Methods
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61 INTRODUCTION
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In earlier chapters, LRFD and LRFR methods based on ultimate strength design for bridge members were introduced for the purpose of rehabilitation design and replacement of bridges This chapter deals with an extension of the methods covered earlier Prime equations and formulae are developed for exural capacity under moving H-15 and H-20 truck loads for single spans using LRFD and LRFR methods, including application of shear design using MCFT Examples for deck slab, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and steel beams, and connections design are presented It is possible to program the extended formulae, such as for construction load combinations for the routine design of members: 1 Using Excel spreadsheets 2 Using Mathcad 3 Developing commercial software AASHTO bridge design methods are expressed in detail
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LIMIT STATES DESIGN EQUATION
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The three criteria for choosing a design method are: 1 Strength control or stress criteria 2 De ection control 3 Crack control
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Section 2
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Strengthening and Repair Work
SECTION 2
STRENGTHENING AND REPAIR WORK
Stress criteria: There are several considerations in bridge design, of which avoiding overstress is the most important The magnitude of stress depends upon response of the material and its age The response of material is based on physical properties such as elastic modulus and modulus of rupture and on the size and shape of the member It is usually expressed as: 1 Elastic stress 2 Yield stress 3 Plastic stress 4 Failure or collapse stress Generally, the extreme limit of elastic stress is yield stress, the extreme limit of yield stress is plastic stress, and the extreme limit of plastic stress is failure or collapse stress Glass, ceramic, or plastics display fragile behavior Concrete displays brittle behavior Steel displays ductile behavior Hence, glass needs to be reinforced with wire, plastics reinforced with ber, and concrete made composite reinforced with rods 5 Stress history is based on applied loads Evaluation of various stages in the life of bridge components and chronological assessment of their performance are required so that limits can be placed either in design or in practice to prevent failure Sources of stress include: Fabrication stress Transportation stress Erection stress Stresses resulting from maintenance loads 6 Stresses at demolition or at failure: Many bridge failures can be avoided by paying attention to changes in design technology and details For example, new concrete materials such as lightweight and heavyweight aggregates, structural plastics, and glass composites have different unit weights than conventional wet concrete Such materials display nonhomogeneous and non-isotropic behavior Current load factors and resistance factors need to be modi ed in the light of experimental results
622 Internal and External Effects Factored resistance at any location of structure factored load effects acting at that location Factored resistance Rn Rn i i Qi when i selected is maximum Rn i Qi / i when i selected is minimum Resistance factor Factored resistance Rn, Load factor (AASHTO Table 341-1 and Table 341-2) i Qi Nominal force effect Rn Nominal resistance it is the mean or an identi ed level of strength Load modi er i
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