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Structural parameter identi cation systems consist of both mathematical (static and dynamic) and non-mathematical activities Mathematical activities generally include strain measurements, displacement and rotation measurements, time domain and frequency domain dynamic measurements Non-mathematical activities include pattern recognition, signal processing, and expert system Recent research on the role of NDE in BMS s suggests the desirability of integrating dynamic testing results with visual ratings data Ewins listed references on dynamic testing for modal vibration measurement and analysis For the ultimate load tests, the bridges selected for removal from service were tested to failure These studies generally provided some insight on the ultimate load capacity and mechanisms of failure that could be used in the future Bridge superstructure condition evaluation research programs focused on two primary areas: ultimate load tests and dynamic tests Laboratory and eld studies to evaluate dynamic properties of bridges and relate them to condition assessments have been reported extensively in past years
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1 Baumgartner and Waubke showed that frequency measurements in tension hangers under traf c loading can be related to the end xity of the hangers 2 Biswas et al reported a component evaluation technique using a hammer impact using dynamic responses Results were con rmed with laboratory models, but eld veri cation was limited 3 Cawley and Adams related changes of successive mode frequencies to the existence and location of structural deterioration in beams 4 DeWolf et al and Gregory et al demonstrated a relationship between dynamic testing results and structural deterioration Sensitivity of dynamic characteristics to deterioration was shown to depend on the particular modes being observed 5 Huston et al reported various full-scale bridge dynamic tests, showing that dynamic characteristics may be revealed using vibratory shakers, impact hammers, and traf c and wind loads 6 Manning suggested that a localized dynamic analysis might be advantageous because serious loss of strength of a single member may occur before it can be observed on the entire structure 7 Mazurek and DeWolf showed in eld tests that ambient traf c loads could be used as a basis for an automated monitoring scheme based on changes in vibration signatures Their laboratory results encouraged further eld investigations Changes in support condition and crack development affect natural frequencies and modal amplitudes Changes in modal frequency were up to 30 percent for changes in support condition and up to 10 percent for cracking 8 New York State DOT used continuous monitoring of bridge dynamic characteristics A remote bridge monitoring system is based on measuring dynamic motion (using accelerometers) as well as strain and rotation (using inclinometers) A warning alarm is detected when signi cant changes in modal frequencies occur Dynamic response data collected show up to 10 percent scatter in the modal frequency measurement 9 Salane et al reported dynamic tests of a bridge for detecting structural deterioration caused by girder fatigue cracks A concrete deck on steel girders was loaded with an electrohydraulic actuator system up to 465,000 load cycles Accelerometers were used to determine damping ratios, frequency contents, and impedance at various stages during the loading The test results indicated increases in damping ratios with cycles of loading caused by cracking and a decrease in amplitude at resonant frequencies, as well as a 20 to 40 percent change in computed stiffness coef cients 10 Salawu and Williams reported a study of the forced vibrations of a bridge before and after repair The test results demonstrated small changes in natural frequency induced by the repair 11 Woodward et al conducted dynamic tests for a full-scale bridge subject to arti cially induced fatigue cracking (vertical cuts) in a main girder Preliminary eld test results showed changes in dynamic characteristics due to a maximum amount of damage It is possible to conclude from the above studies that simpler interpretations for vibration measurements have not been reported in the literature Dynamic measurements can be used to evaluate the distribution of loading in axially loaded members such as cables and truss diagonal braces The natural frequency of such axially loaded members is highly sensitive to the magnitude of the axial load Further work is needed to relate dynamic properties to component deterioration
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