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1 Experience has shown that in addition to the above speci c repair materials, the following guidelines would lead to durable concrete for rehabilitation and replacement Adverse parameters that affect deterioration such as sharp skew, deck joints, deicing chemicals, etc need to be addressed in detail: Use slag and pozzolans to reduce concrete permeability and control heat of hydration Use non-corrosive reinforcement in areas exposed to harsh environments Use higher percentages of aggregate so that cement pastes are not widespread and may initiate cracks Use air entrainment to protect concrete from sub-freezing temperatures Reduce entrapped air voids by compaction and consolidation Use adequate curing methods to control both temperature and moisture Use post-tensioning to prevent crack generation 2 Concrete sealants/sealers: Following are some facts about sealants and sealers: Deck sealants: The major controlling parameter is the depth of penetration Penetrating sealants prevent concrete deterioration from deicing salts and provide durability and permeability Silane and siloxane products are used as concrete surface sealers Moisture on the surface prevents effective application
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CONCRETE REPAIR METHODS
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Table 102 Types of defects in concrete and preventive action Type of Deterioration Scaling Description Preventive Action Primary Causes Salt and deicing chemical agents 1 Surface pitting caused by Air entrainment in concrete freeze and thaw cycles 2 Repeated wetting and drying cycles at splash zone 1 Breaking away of concrete surface from expansive forces caused by corrosion of rebars 2 Structure movement 3 High edge pressure Evaporation of moisture due to hot, dry or windy weather Adequate concrete cover to rebars
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Active cracking/plastic shrinkage (Shallow or full depth)
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1 Use fog nozzles to saturate air 2 Apply curing compound 3 Place plastic cover after nishing
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1 Loss of moisture from 1 Increase amount of Improper mix design and water: cement ratio cement paste constituent aggregate and restraints such as 2 Reduce water content of mix subgrade and mass 3 Use high strength concrete concrete matrix 2 Surface cracks due to high curing temperature difference in a cross section Carbonate rocks such as dolomite limestone react with alkalis and cause detrimental reactions Rebars during curing may restrain concrete from consolidating 1 Proper selection of aggregate 2 Use of pozzolan 3 Use of low alkali cement 1 Use small size bars 2 Concrete with lower slump 3 Increase cover to rebars Material defects
Alkali silica reactive cracks
Dormant Cracking/ settlement cracks Delamination
Settlement of supports
Concrete layer separates at top Increase cover to rebars surface due to expansion force of corroding steel 1 Crystallization of calcium Improve mix design by use of chloride in the form of white admixtures deposit on concrete surface 2 Contamination of concrete 3 Increased porosity
Detailing defects
Ef orescence
Material defects
Honeycombing
Formation of voids in column or 1 Improve method of vibration Construction defects wall concrete 2 Avoid congestion of rebars to permit ow of concrete around rebars
SECTION 3
REPAIR AND RETROFIT METHODS
A design procedure can be formulated for sealant application analogous to concrete mix design for bridge decks with speci c exposure conditions Sealants applied by a ooding procedure will result in additional penetration in a moist concrete deck 3 Sealers can be a cost-effective means of inhibiting corrosion of uncoated reinforcing steel, steel with too little concrete cover, or steel embedded in concrete which exhibits hairline cracks However, sealers are not considered a cost-effective means of inhibiting corrosion when applied to mature concrete of standard quality that utilizes other means of corrosion protection, such as epoxy coated steel, specialty overlays, etc 4 Penetrant sealers: Specify penetrant sealers after grooving existing bridge decks with the following conditions: The existing bridge deck does not conform to the current reinforcing steel cover requirement The superstructure environment is extremely aggressive due to the presence of chlorides The existing deck is to be grooved Also, sealers cannot be used below grade or below the water line because they provide no protection when submerged
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