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A limited eld condition survey should be made to identify bridge decks that may be structurally inadequate or possibly contaminated with deicing chemicals such that normal maintenance is not expected to provide reasonable service Detailed eld appraisal: As reported in deatil in listed Bibliography, a detailed evaluation survey should be performed to further de ne the inadequacies of the existing deck This appraisal should consider the following: 1 Visual observations: The rst step for deck evaluation is to determine the extent of spalling, cracking, and scaling The top surface of bare concrete decks shall be both visually inspected and sounded for obvious signs of deterioration Record the de ciencies of either asphalt overlay or the concrete deck wearing surface (eg, spalling, cracking, scaling, warping, asphalt creep, alligator cracks, etc) Determine the percentage of spalls and/or patches in the exposed concrete deck wearing surface Document by photographs visible concrete spalls which have occurred in the deck riding surface Visual observation does not reveal hidden structural deterioration such as delaminations or corrosion of rebars Visual surveys are generally expressed in terms of the amount of spalling and patching as a percent of the total deck area 2 Delaminations: For evidence of delaminations (horizontal fracture planes) or debonding in the concrete deck (to determine extent of internal fractures of the concrete) use infrared thermography, chain dragging, or other approved methods A chain drag is generally used: The chain drag consists of four or ve segments of 1 inch link chain about 18 inches long, attached to a 2 foot piece of aluminum or copper tube, to which a 2 to 3 foot piece of tubing is attached at the midpoint, forming a T Drag the chain in a swinging motion, resulting in a ringing sound while walking along the concrete surface of the deck Outline, with crayon or paint, the areas of the deck over which the chain produces a distinctive dull sound These areas indicate delamination of concrete 3 Half-cell test to determine the extent of reinforcing steel corrosion: The purpose of half-cell testing is to determine the areas in the deck in which active corrosion is present Corrosion of the reinforcing bars in concrete decks is detected by electric current owing from the rebar at one point (the anode) to another point (the cathode) During active corrosion, a potential electrical difference exists between the anode and cathode, which can be measured by copper/copper sulfate half-cells (CSE)
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4 Pachometer survey: A pachometer survey is performed to determine the depth of the concrete cover over the reinforcement steel The equipment shall be calibrated according to the equipment manufacturer s speci cations Locate and expose a reinforcing bar in the deck using a jackhammer Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the reinforcing steel In order to properly establish the deck condition, establishing the depth of cover over the top reinforcement is necessary This will provide the evaluator with needed information to properly judge the existing condition versus what is the required minimum depth of cover 5 Estimate of corrosion level: Category 1 Extensive active corrosion: 5 percent or more of the deck area is spalled or 40 percent or more of the deck area is deteriorated or contaminated Category 2 Moderate active corrosion: 0 to 5 percent of the deck area is spalled Category 3 Light to no active corrosion 6 Chloride content analysis: This provides a quantitative measure of the chloride ion contamination of concrete at selected levels in the deck Chloride concentrations are signi cantly greater near the surface of a concrete bridge deck When rebars have less than speci ed concrete cover they become appreciably more susceptible to damaging rebar corrosion Test results have generally established that the corrosion threshold is approximately 2 pounds of chloride per cubic yard of concrete at the level of the rebars for typical bridge deck concrete
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