1112 Seismic Resistance
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If an existing bridge does not meet current AASHTO or state design speci cations, seismic retro t needs to be considered
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1113 Hydraulic Inadequacy
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Environmental or Coast Guard concerns may push the rehabilitation versus replacement decision in the direction of rehabilitation while hydraulic inadequacies and poor stream alignment may push the decision toward replacement
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1114 Soil Conditions
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Any signs of foundation settlement may push the decision toward requiring the replacement of structure
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3 addresses the issues contributing to the failure of bridges, in particular those which were least maintained or neglected, and the impact failures have on the future approach to maintenance of existing structures
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Planning to Ensure Safety and Operation
1 One of the most signi cant design factors contributing to the aesthetic quality of the structure is unity, consistency, or continuity These qualities will give the structure an appearance of a design process that was carefully thought out Sound planning also leads to safety and effective operation at intersections 2 Aesthetics is required for rehabilitation: A bridge should have a pleasant appearance As the old saying goes, A thing of beauty is a joy forever It should have a visual relationship with the surrounding area and also have visual impact The famous structural engineer Hardy Cross laid down the criteria of a beautiful bridge: The rst requirement of a beautiful bridge is that it must stand up long enough for us to look at it New bridge facades should preferably blend with the appearance of existing bridges in the vicinity 3 Bridges should have an open appearance and avoid abrupt changes in elevation or curvature Abrupt changes in beam depth should be avoided when possible Whenever sudden changes in the depth of the beams in adjacent spans are required, care should be taken in the development of details at the pier Avoid mixing structural elements, for example, concrete slab and steel beam superstructures or cap and column piers with wall type piers In general, continuous superstructures shall be provided for multiple span bridges Where construction joints cannot be avoided, the depth of spans adjacent to the joints preferably should be the same The use of very slender superstructures over massive piers needs to be avoided Lighting can make a big difference in the aesthetics of a bridge (Figure 113) Use of precast mechanically stabilized earthwork (MSE) walls For abutment, wing wall, and retaining walls, MSE walls are gaining popularity due to their elegant styles, low cost, and quick construction 4 Normally it is not practical to provide cost premium aesthetic treatments without a speci c demand; however, careful attention to the details of structure lines and forms will generally result in a pleasing structure appearance
Figure 113 Lighting and its re ection in the water is important to the aesthetics of a bridge
OVERVIEW OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING
No patchwork in concrete or dissimilar steel painting Use of innovative ideas and new technology: Lightweight and weather-resistant transparent noise varrier sheets incorporate polyamide laments that hold broken sheet in place in the event of impact by a car or truck 5 Cost considerations related to aesthetics The aesthetics of the structure can generally be accomplished within the guidelines of design, requiring only minor project cost increases If form liners are being considered, the depth of the projections should be as deep as possible in order to have the desired visual effect Using shallow depths provides very little visual effect or relief when viewed from a distance The depth of the form liner shall not be included in the measurement of the concrete clear cover
1122 Pedestrian and Equestrian Traf c
In practice, aesthetic requirements are more important in pedestrian and foot bridges located in parks and highways than for other bridge types Aesthetic planning of rural area bridges is different than that for urban areas Each structure should be evaluated for aesthetics