qr code c# wpf Figure 24 Pillars of engineering maintenance in Software

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Figure 24 Pillars of engineering maintenance
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SECTION 1
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Address environmental concerns Increase capacity Improve geometry sight distance Correct de ciencies Future widening Improve horizontal and vertical under clearances Correct joints and bearing problems Improve deck and drainage
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Structural Solutions
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1 In general, most recurring maintenance problems would require unique structural solutions for restoration and strengthening Although rehabilitation is usually associated with older bridges, it may be required for newer bridges when planning, design, or construction mistakes are made The capacity of existing bridges built for a lighter live load are fully tested when heavier vehicles are permitted Fewer maintenance problems are likely to occur when live loads are small (such as with pedestrian or cyclist loads) compared to those by repeated heavier trucks or permit loads 2 Rehabilitation of bridges is a far more diverse and challenging subject than a new design based merely on code compliance For maintenance of an existing bridge, there are fewer alternatives available to the designer than when designing a new bridge Some common rehabilitation examples include: Replacing a collision damaged fascia girder Replacing deck joints and bearings by jacking the superstructure Repairing cracks in a deck slab or in an earthquake damaged concrete pier Strengthening unknown foundations by underpinning with mini piles to prevent soil erosion Bridge performance can be upgraded by seismic retro t, scour countermeasures, and by widening to provide additional lanes, shoulders, or sidewalks
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22 THE REHABILITATION PROCESS
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221 Inspection Reports and Planning Issues
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Recommendations are provided in inspection and rehabilitation reports for emergency repairs, which should be implemented as soon as possible Options include the following courses of action: 1 No reconstruct option is to dismiss the problems for some good reasons The scope of work, type of design, construction effort, and cost are evaluated before a decision is made 2 In extreme cases, the bridge may be shut down inde nitely A temporary detour is followed 3 In other cases, some lanes may be closed to reduce the risk of failure by reducing live loads A partial detour in one direction only may be used 4 The client's emergency repair funds make immediate repairs possible
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222 Quality Planning
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1 Rehabilitation generally involves hundreds of man hours of diagnostic design and several years of work before the bridge is fully restored Over the years, an engineering system has evolved which requires creativity, innovation, ingenuity, constructability, cost effectiveness,
DIAGNOSTIC DESIGN AND SELECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION
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and public involvement Design procedures are usually completed in phases, using intuition, thumb rules, case studies, and practical experience (Figure 25) As stated earlier, maintenance involves inspection, interpretation of data, selection of repair methods, analysis, computer aided design, and application of AASHTO and state codes of practice Only a brief description of various aspects is given here Plan for geometry, minimum skew or curvature, adequate sight distance, suf cient horizontal or vertical clearances, and adequate opening over waterways For important bridges repainting is required on a regular basis (Figure 26) Use modern high strength and corrosion resistant materials Include structural design aspects such as minimum de ection and vibration of girders, use of jointless decks, keeping deck surfacing un-cracked, unrestricted bearing movements, and ductility of joints Meet the functional requirements such as providing an adequate number of lanes to prevent overload, and posting of warning signs and directions located ahead of the bridge Provide facilities for ease of maintenance such as a provision for inspection chambers, structural health monitoring by remote sensors, and nondestructive testing The construction industry has also bene ted from the use of new machinery, cranes, and tractor trailer vehicles for freight Precast concrete technology and pre-assembled replacement bridges offer quick and reliable solutions by minimizing delays and reducing construction time Experience has shown that if any of these are lacking, indirect costs in terms of structural damage, accidents, or delays (which were not provided for in the original budget) will accrue The technology of maintenance varies according to the uniqueness of defects and quality control Quality assurance and quality control are supported by modern technology as seen in the quality of maintenance chart shown in Figure 27 Planning de ciencies should be avoided since they lead to a functionally obsolete condition The goal should be:
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