River Training Measures in Software

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12413 River Training Measures
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As discussed in 1249, river training and ow altering CMs can be more important and effective than armoring since they harness the river and control the ood velocities Due to cost considerations and special applications for higher velocity rivers they will generally take a secondary role when used in combination with primary armoring They are not attached to the bridge substructure and are used primarily to control oods River training structures modify a river s ow They are distinctive in that they alter hydraulics to mitigate undesirable erosion and/or depositional conditions at a particular location or in a river reach They are more suitable when local scour is a problem River training structures can be constructed of various material types Some of the common types of river training methods are: Retard (earth, timber, and steel sheet piles) Channel improvements (channelization) Guide banks/guide walls Groyne (spur/dike/de ector) Grade control structure/Check dams
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PROTECTION OF BRIDGES AGAINST EXTREME EVENTS
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Collars Auxiliary bridge River training structures are described as transverse, longitudinal, or areal depending on their orientation to the stream ow 1 Transverse river training structures are CMs which project into the ow eld at an angle or perpendicular to the direction of ow Groynes are transverse river training structures constructed from stone, earth, sheet piling, or timber cribwork and extend out into the channel from a bank that is at risk of erosion They are most commonly used on wide braided or meandering channels 2 Longitudinal river training structures are oriented parallel to the ow eld or along a bank line They use erosion protection systems that include riprap, gabion mattresses, concrete blocks (interlocking or articulated), sheet piling, and bioengineering solutions using soil reinforcement and vegetation cover 3 Areal river training structures cannot be described as transverse or longitudinal when acting as a system This group also includes countermeasure treatments which have areal characteristics such as channelization, ow relief, and sediment detention Examples of areal river training are vertical (bed elevation control) CMs, such as sills or weirs
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12414 Flow Altering Countermeasures
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Flow altering countermeasures are recommended for diverting scour away from bridge piers and should be used in combination with riprap, gabions, etc Sacri cial piles, upstream sheet piles, collars and horizontal plates, ow de ecting vanes or plates, modi ed pier shape or texture, and slots in piers and pier groups are examples of ow altering CMs 1 Sacri cial piles: Sacri cial piles are only recommended where the ow is likely to remain aligned with the pile or pier arrangement and for relatively low ow intensities (that is, under clear-water scour conditions) 2 Upstream sheet piles: Upstream sheet piles are placed upstream of bridge piers to arrest scour in the lee of sheet piles The width of sheet piles should be equal to the width of bridge piers and they should protrude only one third of the depth above the river bed 3 Selection of river training countermeasures will be based on the following considerations: Flood velocity, medium or high Flow conditions, overtopping or over bank Perennial or seasonal Type of scour, local or contraction, aggradation or degradation Width of waterway, narrow or wide Span length, medium or long Stream alignment, straight, meandering, or braided Environmental requirements Past experience of successful applications Recommended river training countermeasures: Depending on ood conditions, the following types are recommended: 1 Retard (earth, timber, and steel sheet piles) 2 Channel improvements (channelization) 3 Guide banks/guide walls The nal selection should be made based on project and site speci c conditions
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Table 123 Comparison of river training measures Countermeasure S No Type 1 Retard (earth, timber and steel sheet piles) Scour Type Local scour, Meandering stream or shifting of thalweg Description Permeable or impermeable structure parallel to banks, to reduce ow velocity and induce deposition Channel modi cations to increase ow capacity and sediment transport, including dredging, channel clearing Advantages Suitable for maintaining channel alignment Induce deposition Disadvantages Minimum disadvantages since piles are buried below river bed Expensive Remarks Recommended for high ood velocities
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Channel Improvements (channelization)
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