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Suitable for Minimum aggradation or if disadvantages upstream/ downstream of bridge is clogged
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Guide banks/guide Local scour at Straight or outward walls abutments/ channel curving earth braiding structure/ ll to form embankments upstream to align ow through bridge opening and reduce abutment scour Groyne (spur/dike/ Local scour, de ector) upstream lateral erosion and degradation Impermeable or permeable structure, which projects into ow to alter ow direction, reduces velocity and induces deposition
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Improves ow conditions, Moves point of local scour away from abutment, prevent erosion by eddy action Suitable for containment of over bank ow and for braided streams Proven effective
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Does not prevent downstream lateral erosion of banks or degradation of channel They project above river bed Not applicable to streams or narrow channels Expensive to install since riprap is required downstream of grade control structure
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Grade control structure / check dams
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Contraction and local scour, degradation, aggradation, and lateral erosion of banks
Low dam or weir Suitable for high made of concrete, ood velocities sheet pile, mats, gabions constructed across channel to form debris basin and provide vertical stability of stream bed Thin horizontal plate attached to base of pier to de ect ow away from sediment bed Suitable for high velocity rivers & for long span bridges Low cost and maintenance
Dif cult to meet environmental requirements since sh passage is adversely affected
Collars
Local scour
Debris accumulation for small spans Does not eliminate scour, not much experience
Not easy to construct River encroachment permit requirements apply
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PROTECTION OF BRIDGES AGAINST EXTREME EVENTS
Table 123 Comparison of river training measures (continued) Countermeasure S No Type 7 Relief bridge Scour Type Local scour Description Constructing an additional or auxiliary bridge adjacent to the scour critical bridge to minimize the discharge and ood velocity Advantages Suitable for wide rivers and overcomes the problems associated with defects in the original planning and size of opening Foundation is stable Disadvantages Remarks
May cost nearly It may be dif cult to the same as a acquire the rightreplacement bridge of-way in developed Environmentally, areas it may create additional problems
Driving upstream Scour at pile groups Driving mini piles sheeting or using and at bottom of and constructing mini piles and protection pile cap additional pile cap
Dif cult and expensive
Bridge needs to be supported during construction
Size: The median size of riprap D50 shall be determined using guidelines in HEC-18 Minimum D50 size of riprap shall be R-6 and maximum D50 size shall be R-8 as per NCSA rock size and gradation in Table 142
HEC-18 COUNTERMEASURES MATRIX (CM)
The HEC-18 CM matrix facilitates preliminary selection of feasible alternatives, prior to a more detailed investigation The matrix lists the CM types in rows, against their characteristics in columns but needs to be modi ed in the light of speci c conditions of state rivers The Modi ed Matrix Table in the Appendix shows a modi ed CM matrix for simpli ed conditions The table is based on engineering factors, environmental factors, and cost CMs have been organized into groups based on their functionality with respect to scour and stream instability classi ed into three groups: Group 1: Hydraulic CMs Group 1a: River training structures Transverse structures Longitudinal structures Arial structures Group 1b: Armoring CMs Revetment and bed armor (rigid, exible/articulating) Local armoring Group 2: Structural CMs Foundation strengthening Pier geometry modi cation Group 3: Monitoring Fixed instrumentation Portable instrumentation Visual monitoring Each CM must be selected on the basis of a scour analysis for each speci c site CM characteristics are classi ed into three groups:
SECTION 3
REPAIR AND RETROFIT METHODS
1 Functional applications: Functional applications are the computed or observed scour conditions, such as local, contraction, and stream instability conditions 2 Suitable river environment: The suitable river environment grouping lists a wide range of physical data for hydraulic and geotechnical conditions related to the river 3 Maintenance
1251 Types of Countermeasures in Use
Common types of countermeasures are riprap, gabion baskets, concrete blocks, and sheet piling:
Table 124 Distribution of Countermeasures in US Countermeasure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Monitoring Dumped riprap Extended footings Rock gabions Spurs Pavements Check dams Rock bank protection Unspeci ed % Use w/Monitoring 76% 16% 2% 15% 11% 07% 025% 025% 22% Total % Use w/o Monitoring 67% 8% 6% 4% 3% 1% 1% 10% 100%
Scour depth should be measured from a reference line 1 ft above the top of the footing If eroded elevation is located at an elevation higher than 1 ft above the top of the footing, the higher elevation is considered For placing riprap, excavation to the design depth should be carried out The depth of riprap should be at least below the contraction scour depth If considerable erosion has already taken place and the riverbed elevation is below the top of the footing, hydraulic analysis shall be based on the new channel pro le by considering the new opening size
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