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Footing on non-erodible rock Minimum 6 inch into bedrock Footing on erodible rock Minimum 3 inch in erodible rock Footing on soil Minimum 6 ft in soil (for existing footings minimum 3 ft depth of riprap used) The same type of armoring CM should be used for abutments and piers for economy and ease of construction Armoring should not be mixed, ie, if gabions are selected, then they should be used for the whole bridge site However, armoring can be combined with structural CM or river training
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The use of a lter, or alternatively a geotextile ( lter cloth), is of particular importance in ensuring that ner material does not leach through or winnow around the riprap No lter is required for gravel beds For sand beds, use a geotextile lter cover equal to the width of a pier (W) from the face of the pier in each direction
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PROTECTION OF BRIDGES AGAINST EXTREME EVENTS
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The following distribution of riprap sizes should be used 100 percent ner than 15 D50 80 percent ner than 125 D50 50 percent ner than 10 D50 20 percent ner than 06 D50
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Effectiveness depends on The seal around piers Reduced tendency of rock dispersal 50 percent less volume of rocks Granular lters subject to degradation More effective if tied into abutment countermeasure when pier footing is located within three pier diameters of abutment footings
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Excavation required Sealing geotextile to pile bents is dif cult Limited ability to pre-excavate due to pier footing and/or pile geometry Specialized construction techniques for geotextile placement Gravel cushion on geotextile to avoid rupturing Performance dependent on construction sequence
Placement of Riprap
Riprap around bridge piers can either be installed from a bridge deck or from the bed/banks of a stream Installation from bridge deck: Riprap is installed from a bridge deck by dumping from trucks and spreading by loader Since stones are placed irregularly, they are unstable Also, there are voids between the stones, through which ne particles of soil travel underwater pressure and cause erosion The success rate with dumped riprap at many existing sites may be misleading since the bridge may not have been subjected to peak design oods of 100 years For large bridges, installation from a bridge deck can be done by machine placing from a dragline or from buckets Installation from bed/banks of stream: In this method, by hand placing and packing, a compact, mortar less masonry type construction can be achieved Stones packed into a close interlocking layer will minimize the size of voids This method of installing riprap results in a stable con guration and in uniformity of stone size distribution The quality of construction is better than the dumping method Also, a sh channel made within the top stone layers can be maintained Although more expensive than other methods, its use is recommended Dumped riprap can be placed by boats when stone sizes are not large
Durability
The following durability issues should be considered with riprap installations: Broad band of failure threshold potential Catastrophic failure if riprap is exposed Geotextile fails abruptly
SECTION 3
REPAIR AND RETROFIT METHODS
Maintainability
The following maintainability issues should be considered with riprap installations:
Costs
Under-bed installation increases durability More maintenance with dumped riprap Dif cult to repair ripped geotextile or locate damage to riprap Clean up dif cult after failure Gravel lters easier to maintain than geotextile
The following cost issues should be considered with riprap installations (may vary according to local conditions):
Geotextile is more expensive than granular lter Pre-excavation costs Disposal costs Less stone costs Traf c disruptions
Riprap Countermeasure Design for Abutment
Design guidelines for riprap at bridge abutments in this section are based on Stability of Rock Riprap for Protection at the Toe of Abutments Located at the Floodplain, published in 1991 Design of Riprap Revetment, Hydraulic Engineering Circular-11, and Design Guidelines 8 and 12 of HEC-23 1 Side slopes: For preventing slump failure, the side slope is a signi cant factor in the stability of riprap It is desirable to decrease the steepness of abutments; thus increasing the stability of the riprap on the slopes 2 Recommended minimum value for side slopes varies from 1:2 to 1:15, (H:V) 3 Extent of riprap protection 4 Vertical-wall abutments: For vertical wall abutments without wingwalls, wingwalls at 90 or splayed wingwalls, the width of a riprap layer (WR) adjacent to a footing at the river side of an abutment should be the greater of the following: Width of scour hole 2W (W=width of abutment at the base) or 2W/cos ( ) when skew angle of ow 15 X 18 in y cot where X is the width of abutment footing, y is design scour depth at abutment and is the angle of natural repose for the soil, as obtained from geotechnical report Place riprap around the footings with the slope starting at a distance of a minimum of 1 ft from the vertical face of the footing 5 Spill-through abutments: For spill-through abutments, extend the riprap around the abutment and down to the expected scour depth The launching apron at the toe of the abutment slope should extend along the entire width of the abutment toe and around the sides of the abutment to a point of tangency with plane of embankment slopes The apron should extend from the toe of the abutment into the waterway a distance equal to twice the ow depth in the over bank area near the embankment, not exceeding 25 feet Figures for typical layouts of abutment riprap for abutments near a channel bank, stub abutments near the top of a high channel bank, and abutments near a ood plain are given by the Maryland State Highway Administration
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