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Routine, Diagnostic, and Preservation Design
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1 Original or routine design (shown in Figure 210): New bridge design is based on the latest codes of practice from AASHTO and the state DOT The latest technology is utilized There are many options available for superstructure planning and design Structural solutions and the type of foundation to be used are broad based Major funding is required However, life cycle costs can be controlled through judicious planning and design In original design, no load posting is required AASHTO LRFD speci cations deal primarily with routine design of new members and not with the redesign of de cient or rogue members At present there are no separate speci cations for diagnostic design Although there are many types of defects, the practical issues related to all types of defects need to be addressed on their own merits, perhaps on a case-by-case basis A comprehensive maintenance code would therefore be desirable 2 Diagnostic design: Older bridges were designed to different criteria, using different materials and for different loads, a long time ago Fatigue and environmental constraints such as corrosion have given rise to structural de ciencies To identify the de ciencies and the degree of damage, a diagnosis based on inspection or remote health monitoring is carried out on a regular basis Some major and some minor repairs may be required, based on the diagnosis Smart solutions need to be based on diagnostic type design Diagnostic design steps required for a typical pre-reconstruction planning process are shown in Figure 210 An example requiring diagnostic design is when a lower strength of concrete exists This can be known by taking core samples from abutment or wingwall and testing the samples in a laboratory Older bridges may have used lower strengths (below 3000 psi) while new bridges the require Class A concrete (4000 psi or higher) in some states Similarly, current requirements of 60,000 psi for yield of reinforcing bars may not be met, since in olden days yield strength was not even 40,000 psi Such bridges may be strengthened if they are not beyond repair Another example requiring diagnostic design is at zones of high fatigue in a steel beam subject to reversal stress from moving loads This would require ange plates to be added If new plates are not added, allowable stresses in bending and shear may be lowered in keeping with the fatigue de ciency Load posting to a lower live load may be required
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Figure 210 Progressive design phases that may occur in the life of a bridge
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3 Selective type of reconstruction: Selective reconstruction is tailored to suit existing eld conditions Based on an alternatives study, value engineering is usually carried out Since structural solutions and type of foundation to be used are site speci c and bridge oriented, unique applicable solutions need to be considered Funding for the diagnostic design and repair would be less than the cost of replacement However, life cycle costs cannot be controlled due to limitations in the original design as any de ciency is likely to be recurring Repair, retro t, and rehabilitation requirements would require de cient members to be repaired or replaced Selected primary ailing members need to be checked for new conditions and load combinations If the old member is retained, selective reconstruction or a x is required Load posting may be required during diagnostic design Consider physical constraints such as matching new and old components: A newly constructed width in an existing bridge may have a different response to shrinkage and creep strain of concrete 4 Preservation design: Certain important bridges which are on the Historic Register have special requirements for repairs and retro t It is a special case of diagnostic design and many features are common While funding based priorities are generally used in diagnostic design and the rehabilitation process is different, funding is less of an issue for the preservation of historically signi cant bridges In diagnostic design, in place of an expensive solution it is preferred to replace the bridge However, in a preservation design an expensive solution is not a deterrent, and restoration is carried out for aesthetic, historical, and sentimental reasons Hence, the methods of structural solutions and the type of repair technology in each case tends to be different More sophisticated methods may be adopted for the repairs of a historic bridge since members or their appearance need to be preserved Similarly, inspection frequency would be higher for preservation design than for diagnostic design In preservation design, load posting may be frequently required According to AASHTO LRFD speci cations the minimum life of a bridge is assumed to be 75 years, which incidentally coincides with the life span of the generation of engineers who may be regarded as its worldly creators It appears that historic bridges and most of the older bridges have survived longer than originally estimated as a result of regular inspections 5 Innovative repair, strengthening, and retro t techniques listed in s 7 through 12 cover both diagnostic and preservation approaches to designing for maintenance 6 Steps in a reconstruction process: Steps required for reconstruction include the 5 R s and/or widening (W) as shown in Figure 29 Bridge Management System (BMS) is used for National Bridge Inspection System (NBIS) based on which suf ciency rating (SR) is computed Bridge or highway structure is evaluated for de ciency or is declared as functionally obsolete The type of maintenance based on the 5 R s or widening is selected Funding approval from FHWA or highway funding program is obtained Project scoping is developed based on which feasibility study for preferred and other alternates is carried out The FHWA method for accelerated bridge construction and life cycle cost analysis is applied Bridge security and environmental issues are considered For large or complex projects, Value Engineering is performed If necessary, the preliminary design is modi ed Final design and contract documents are prepared for award of the reconstruction contract Constructability and MPT are considered
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