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Survey of Structural De ciencies and the Need for Rehabilitation
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In this chapter, the need for diagnostic and preservation design and maintenance principles is discussed The role of the federal government and states for overseeing and funding is addressed While original construction is based on routine design, selective reconstruction is based on diagnostic and preservation design Design issues for the historic and covered bridges are highlighted 1 Bridge is not structurally de cient: Only minor repairs may be required It appears that a percentage over 5 percent de cient is a cause of concern in terms of monitoring and rehabilitation, or even replacement 2 Bridge is structurally de cient: Structurally de cient bridges (SDB) may be de ned as those with deteriorated conditions and which may be subjected to load restrictions for safety considerations Either its design or existing condition has impacted its ability to adequately carry its intended traf c loads It has a span > 20 ft and has not had major reconstruction in the past 10 years Figure 211 shows the percentages of bridges in the US which are structurally de cient SDB does not necessarily mean an unsafe bridge, but if not repaired, in time such bridges are likely to become unsafe A recent survey conducted in 2008 (Table 21) points out the following alarming percentages (in excess of 5 percent) of SDBs in some of the 50 states:
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Figure 211 Distribution of structurally de cient bridges throughout the USA Source of data: FHWA 2003 National Bridge Inventory Note: The state with 23 percent is Rhode Island
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DIAGNOSTIC DESIGN AND SELECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION
Table 21 The increasing number of SDB s in the US State Pennsylvania Oklahoma Iowa Missouri California Ohio Mississippi Kansas Illinois Nebraska North Carolina New York Indiana Texas Alabama Virginia Estimate of Total Number of Bridges 31,704 22,723 24,797 24,140 23,971 27,998 16,575 25,500 26,710 15,000 17,783 17,361 18,494 50,474 15,827 20,842 SDB 8140 5435 4763 4332 3517 2862 2830 2707 2615 2294 2272 2128 2030 1871 1769 1755 Approximate Percent De cient (Rounded %) 26% 24% 19% 18% 15% 10% 17% 11% 10% 15% 13% 12% 11% 4% 11% 8%
An estimate of total repair costs made by ASCE in 2005 shows it would cost over $10 billion for repairs of all SDB s The number of SDB s increases with time and continued usage The condition of bridges and the number of SDB s is reported on a two-year inspection cycle Note that Pennsylvania has over 8,000 SDB s; however, Texas, with the largest number of bridges on its inventory (over 50,000), has fewer SDB s (Table 21)
233 Identify De ciencies
1 In evaluating rehabilitation, every component, as well as structural capacity, deck geometry, scour, seismic adequacy, and current de ciencies, needs to be assessed Projects should correct bridge de ciencies that contribute to accident clusters and cause a functionally obsolete bridge Ignoring the impact/deterioration altogether and not taking any action for a long time will lead to functionally obsolete bridges (Figure 212) 2 For structural solutions, a complete rehabilitation for removing all de ciencies, or justifying their retention, is necessary It includes the work required to restore the structural integrity of portions of the original bridge deck, as well as the installation of a deck protective system 3 Functionally obsolete bridges: A functionally obsolete bridge (FOB) has a reduced ability to adequately meet traf c needs and is below the accepted design standards The following factors contribute to the increase in FOB s: Structures in the advanced stage of deterioration Low traf c volume and/or no money available for repairs Too much local opposition to change Safety issues Unacceptable delays and detours The two obvious solutions to these issues are closing an FOB or replacing it
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