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1 A specialized approach to design is required for effective maintenance of historic bridges and may include a diagnosis of de ciencies It is based on the ndings of a eld inspection and structural health monitoring Selective reconstruction in the form of repair, retro t (structural strengthening) is the result 2 Preservation design is a special type of diagnostic design: Preservation design is required for bridges that are listed on the National Historic Register They have a high importance factor since their preservation is a sentimental consideration, depicting past history or culture, and cost is not usually a major factor Their importance emanates from their ability to serve as a living museum 3 Preservation design generally applies to historic bridges It maintains existing shapes and sizes, and optimization is not a consideration To maintain the historical integrity of each bridge, help is needed from sophisticated technology and special design methods, in addition to those deployed for diagnostic design To develop retro tting or reinforcing systems, the process involves advanced numerical modeling and simulation of the loading regime The same analysis-based computer programs will compute both rating and redesign separately 4 Federal law protects historic bridges Special attention is required for their rehabilitation or improvement The director of the Division of Historical Resources (the Department of State) serves as the State Historic Preservation Of cer (SHPO) The SHPO and state DOT are responsible for determining what effect any structural changes will have on a historic bridge 5 According to the National Park Service, the structures and places that are part of its National Historic Landmarks Program possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States Historical bridges increasingly make signi cant impacts as community landmarks They can be as simple as freeway overpasses decorated with American ags They are symbols of local attractions as distinctive as the pedestrian bridges or as famous as the Golden Gate Bridge In a small way, they promote tourism and are depicted on postcards that are mailed the world over by tourists 6 Guidelines for historic bridge maintenance and rehabilitation based on the Secretary of the Interior s Standards for Rehabilitation may be quoted as follows: The original character-de ning qualities or elements of a bridge, its site, and its environment should be respected The removal, concealment, or alteration of any historic material or distinctive engineering or architectural feature should be avoided Distinctive engineering and stylistic features, nishes, and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize an historic property shall be preserved Deteriorated structural members and architectural features shall be retained and repaired, rather than replaced Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive element, the new element should match the old in design, texture, and other visual qualities and where possible, materials Replacement of missing features shall be substantiated by documentary, physical, or pictorial evidence 7 A historic bridge serves as a landmark and is subjected to obtaining the following permits as applicable, which is a most time-consuming process: Construction impact Floodplain impact Wetlands impact
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1 Inspection reports form the basis of interpretating of eld de ciencies, structural evaluation, rating, selection of rehabilitation method, analysis and computer aided design, and application of AASHTO and state codes of practice Generally, only a few components of a bridge need replacement, while many others are retained Sometimes this may result in a mismatch due to differences in old and new materials 2 Inspection of 50- to 100-year-old structures has shown that they were designed using old AASHO code, which was in effect at that time Both design criteria and construction techniques have changed since those days We are dealing with many thousands of older bridges Design practices in the olden days were based on intuition, thumb rules, case studies, and limited practical experience They were later followed by hand calculations using simple formulae Modern day design requires code compliance and pro ciency in computer analysis and software use Stiffness matrix and nite elements methods are currently used for analysis and ultimate load methods for design 3 A mixed technology scenario is sometimes necessary for widening and rehabilitation Table 22 summarizes the variations in old and new materials and methods Notable differences compiled by the author show applicable new live loads and new design criteria 4 At the time of their design, there were no criteria for heavy permit loads and live loads were much lighter Also, there was no ultimate load design, fatigue resistant details, or security considerations Not all long span bridges for example would meet new security criteria There are practical dif culties in upgrading and bringing up to date an old bridge to conform to newer technology 5 Multi-girder construction has taken over non-redundant through girder systems Working stress design has been replaced by load resistance factor design Use of materials having steel yield strength of 30,000 psi is to be replaced by 50,000 or 70,000 psi of HPS 70W grade Similarly, concrete crushing strength has increased from 2500 psi to 5000 psi of HPC 6 The history of failures has shown that major failures are due to oods, earthquakes, or fatigue It is important to check the safety for both scour and seismic criteria given in AASHTO LRFD Code 2007 and recommend adequate retro ts An important part of seismic response is the substructure stiffness and foundation capacity Also, the effect of scour on foundation capacity may reduce seismic response since existing pier footings, which have become exposed, may cause settlement during a seismic event Hence, old bridges require added attention and special procedures need to be developed for their rehabilitation Repairing old structures to meet new AASHTO criteria requires planning, use of modern materials, and innovative techniques
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