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265 Restoration of Historic Footbridges
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1 Footbridges promise increased challenges to designers by incorporating more elegant and modern materials, thoughtful designs, and complex engineering Even railway bridges can be included in this trend of illustrating and interpreting local heritage Footbridge design has become an aesthetically pleasing way for neighborhoods and communities to create a desired landmark To strengthen masonry arches, a successfully used reinforcing anchor system process involves: Maintaining the historical integrity of the bridge Simulation of the loading regime to specify a retro tted reinforcing system Numerical modeling Designing the number of bars to be used and their location Dry or low volume wet diamond drilling techniques At selected locations, where a structure is in need of reinforcement, a steel bar enclosed in mesh fabric sleeve is inserted A non-polymer grout is injected into the sleeve under low pressure 2 Preserving historic railings that may not meet current standards on bridges that are listed or are eligible to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places presents a special challenge in maintaining the appearance of the bridge Original railing on a historic bridge is not likely to meet: Current standards for combination traf c and pedestrian railings, eg, a minimum height of 42 inches and the minimum 6-inch limit for openings in the railing Current crash test requirements Current standards for railing height and for combination traf c and pedestrian railings 3 Options for upgrading the railing include the following: Replace the existing railing with an approved, acceptable railing of similar appearance Place approved traf c railing inboard of existing railing, leaving the existing railing in place to act as dummy railing Where an existing railing is especially decorative, remove the current railing and mimic into a new acceptable railing
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Design a special railing matching the appearance of the existing railing with higher strength material to meet the crash test requirements It may not be necessary to crash test the new railing if the geometry and calculated strength equals or exceeds a crash tested traf c railing 4 Historic Shelby Street Bridge in Nashville, Tennessee has been retained as a footbridge One hundred year old Shelby Street Bridge originally was built in 1909 Problems with concrete used in its construction led to repairs in the 1920s and again in 1960 In 1998, the bridge was declared un t for traf c and was slated for demolition However, because of its historic nature, the bridge was not torn down, but was converted into a pedestrian bridge linking entertainment venues and the coliseum on either side of the Cumberland River The bridge was repainted in 2003 with an inorganic, zinc-rich primer, a cycloaliphatic amine cured epoxy middle coat, and a uorourethane topcoat The bridge often is lit with lights of various colors, often re ecting the season A gray topcoat was selected because it shows the color of the lights better At 3150 feet, it is one of the longest pedestrian bridges in the world
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266 Restoring Historic Masonry Arch Bridges
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1 A two lane precast concrete arch bridge in Lancaster County, PA replaced a masonry bridge built in 1917, but retained the original structure s character A safety inspection of the original 1917 bridge revealed deterioration and structural de ciencies too extensive for repair Design was sensitive to surrounding rural landscape The county was able to quickly secure the Pennsylvania Historic Museum Commission s (PHMC) approval for the bridge replacement The new concrete bridge mimics the features of the original historic structure and matches the stone-masonry-like fa ade of a nearby farmhouse 2 Restoration of the Wisconsin Avenue Bridge in Washington, DC The new arch bridge needed to be simulated Based on the analysis of a three dimensional simulation model, reinforcement con gurations to resist the stresses were nalized It was successfully restored by using a proprietary system The method allowed 25-inch diameter holes to be drilled in the arch Stainless steel 1-inch diameter anchor bars were embedded into a polyester sock material Cementitious grout was pumped into the sock causing it to in ate and encase the steel in 6000 psi compression grout 3 The historic 19th Century bridge located in Valley Forge National Park in Pennsylvania is a wrought-iron through truss built in 1886 and was rehabilitated using advanced composite materials It spans 19 meters and carries one lane of vehicular traf c Based on the deterioration of stringers that supported a timber deck, a rehabilitation project was initiated The solution chosen was to remove the stringers and in their place install a glass ber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) slab The weight of the slab was roughly half the weight of the existing stringers, thereby reducing the dead load effects on the remaining structure A wood wearing surface was installed on top of the GFRP slab to restore the deck to its initial condition In 1998, a diagnostic load test was performed on the bridge using a pre-weighed truck Strains and de ections of the GFRP slab and truss elements were recorded for two different truck weights and for various load passes 4 Evaluation of historic bridges constructed in the rst half of the 20th Century: Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, IL used advanced NDT methods to provide vital structural and material information necessary for successful rehabilitation Laboratory testing addressed such topics as the extent of deterioration and chloride concentration in the concrete, as well as identi cation of aggregates and cement constituents, so repair concrete could be
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