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BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING
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The nal result from analyzing many indicators leads to an understanding of the manner of explosion and magnitude of the explosion source energy Correlation methods used are: 1 Semi-empirical damage correlations to single-degree-of-freedom analysis 2 Semi-empirical damage correlations to dynamic nonlinear nite element analysis 3 Use of multiple damage indicators to identify the manner of explosion
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326 Preparing Judicial Reports
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An investigation report will clearly identify the reasons behind the failure and will cover any administrative and technical lapses or force majeure Knowledge of state and federal laws addressing the rights of victims affected by the disaster will be required Training in global bridge engineering to include forensic engineering is desirable for designers to appreciate the consequences of failures resulting from their actions or inactions Continuing education seminars to create interest in objective designing need to be made mandatory
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MANY ASPECTS OF FAILURES
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1 Table 31 lists additional causes in light of more recent events They may be identi ed on the basis of old and new technology Additional causes of failures may be listed as: Joints and connection failures (I-35W bridge failure in Minnesota) Tornados and hurricanes (Louisiana disaster from Hurricane Katrina) Bomb blast and vandalism (a bridge collapse in Manchester, New Hampshire and the 1992 A406 yover in England) Ice damage (author s structural solutions as structural engineer for timber fender collapse at the navigable Delaware and Raritan River bridges for the New Jersey Turnpike Authority) Earthquake damage to bridges in Pakistan (author was a member of the US AID Team which compiled a reconstruction report after the 2005 earthquake) Scour collapse of Peckman s River Bridge from Hurricane Floyd (the six-lane collapsed bridge on Route 46 was replaced with an integral abutment bridge, using deep pile foundations and shielded with sheet piling) 2 Failures during construction and due to earthquakes have been much higher than those shown by the earlier studies and need to be taken seriously in designing for construction loads or for seismic events 3 Design and detailing errors need to be minimized with QA/QC procedures and checking 4 In the past, less attention has been paid to extreme events and construction conditions However, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Speci cations have included both extreme events and construction loads in design Further research is needed in these relatively new disciplines
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341 Comparative Study of Failures
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The identi cation and diagnosis of failures is the starting point for meeting rehabilitation objectives and drafting a comprehensive code of practice for design The author has carried out in-depth studies of such causes and their prevention from many independent sources Only ve major sources are listed here: 1 According to Jean Louis Briaud of Texas A&M, a great number of bridges continue to fail due to ood, collision, and overload Bridges with narrow waterway openings and erodible soils are most susceptible to bridge collapse Other frequent principal causes are design, detailing, construction, and material defects
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ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES
Table 31 In uence of technology level on bridge failures Bridge Component Deck slab Old Technology Open steel grid or steel oor beam supported or low strength concrete Bitumen or screed for concrete deck Made of cast iron, wrought iron, or mild steel with low yield strength Use of non-redundant through trusses Riveted connections Non-crash tested Rigid connections in substructure Rocker and roller New Technology HPC, Exodermic and FRPC Remarks Concrete deck is replaced every 15 or 20 years Wearing surfaces added (FWS) as required Hybrid girders being used
Overlays for protection
Latex modi ed concrete, corrosion inhibitor aggregate concrete Made of Grade 50 steel, HPS 70W and HPS 100W Use of redundant multiple girder system High strength bolts and welds Crash tested
Girders or trusses
Structural system Joints and connections Parapet and railing Seismic resistance Bearings
Composite action due to shear connectors Detailing procedures revised in subsequent codes Through girders also used as parapets in old system
Use of ductile moment resisting Substructure detailing frames for piers procedures changed Elastomeric pads or multirotational Weathering steel with selected paint system Deep foundations, steel piles or drilled shaft Gabions, sheet piles and articulated concrete blocks New bearings allow thermal changes and seismic movements Paint costs have increased as percentage of total cost In-depth soil information is required Additional cost of countermeasures is incurred
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