BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING in Software

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BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING
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Table 32 Recent international bridge failures, and the nature of each collapse Location Year Description Ten people died Many casualties Many casualties Autoroute 19 overpass collapsed killing ve and injuring six A rail disaster killed 114 people Nature of Collapse Bridge less than two weeks old Bridge over river hit by a ship in fog Due to earthquake Not available Flood washed a rail bridge away Shershah Bridge Karachi, Pakistan 2007 (see Figure 35) Southern China Kashiwazaki City, Nigata, Japan Laval, Quebec, Canada India Southern Spain Daman, India Central China Lisbon, Portugal 2007 2007 2006 2005 2005 2003 2002 2001
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A section of a highway bridge collapsed killing Under construction six people Long span suspension bridge Two bridges killing a combined 19 people Collapse caused a tour bus to plunge into a river, killing more than 50 people Collapse killed 32 and injured 17 Bridge collapse over a river Not available Bridge collapse over a river Not available
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Seongsu Bridge, Seoul, South Korea 1994
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35 A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF RECENT FAILURES
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351 Bridges Not Located on Rivers
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Bridges have failed the world over and continue to do so Most failures can be avoided with ef cient monitoring and timely maintenance Some examples of recent bridge failures in the US are given below where full or partial failures have resulted from: 1 Fatigue and fracture (numerous railway and highway bridges) 2 Corrosion and web cracking of steel girders (I-95 curved bridge located near the Philadelphia Airport) 3 Collision damage due to limited vertical under clearance (North Jersey Bridge) 4 Fire and excessive heat (I-95 bridge northeast of Philadelphia) 5 Earthquake movements (bridge failures in California) 6 Excessive wind (Tacoma Narrows Bridge) Examples of more recent failures outside the US: A brief description of casualties is provided in Table 32
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352 Examples of Foundation Scour
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1 Failure due to foundation scour and settlement from soil erosion is a threat to bridge structures The majority of scour-related failures can be avoided by providing modern countermeasures at their foundations to prevent erosion 2 Scour from Riverine Flow Foundation scour is a major cause of bridge failures Foundation settlement is caused from erosion and weak soil conditions When a pier tilts (Figure 36), there is potential for a bridge to collapse without warning This is a de nite safety issue for travelers Scour likely reduces the capacity of existing foundations due to the removal of scoured material Section 46 of the NJDOT LRFD Design Manual for Bridges and Structures, developed
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SECTION 1
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ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES
Figure 35 Sudden collapse of Shershah curved girder bridge in Karachi, Pakistan
by the author, requires precautionary scour protection at all times based on a scour analysis Countermeasures are needed based on HEC-23 Other examples of bridge failure include a bridge in Ellis County, Texas in 2004 and another major failure in New York (Schoharie Creek bridge located on the NY state thruway) in 1987 3 Scour from tidal ow: Tidal scour analysis using procedures outlined in HEC-18 and HEC-25 is required Tidal scour is more common than the uvial ood ows of shorter durations The destructive nature of scour evolves in cumulative smaller steps rather than occurring in a single ood event
Figure 36 Abutment settlement, backwall collapse, and bearing failure
BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING
Table 33 Recent bridge failures in the US, including the nature of each collapse Location Interstate 35W Minneapolis, MN Webbers Falls, OK over the Arkansas River (see Figure 310) Walnut St Bridge, Harrisburg, PA Tennessee River Bridge, Clifton, TN Schoharie Creek Thruway Bridge, Amsterdam, NY Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa, FL Year 2007 2002 1996 1995 1987 1980 Description Twelve people died Nature of Collapse Bridge collapse over a river
A 500-foot section of the I-40 bridge A barge struck one pier of bridge, collapsed, killing 14 people causing partial collapse Some injuries Some casualties A total collapse of the bridge killed 10 people Bridge collapse over a river Bridge collapse over a river Bridge collapse over a river
A ship hit the bridge during a storm, Bridge collapse over a river 35 people were killed in the collapse
Scour is induced due to wave action Scour is induced due to tidal currents Effects of the interaction of simultaneous uvial and tidal currents may be present The effects of littoral drift can increase lateral migration and affect long term erosion Bridges located on tidal waterways are also subjected to contraction and local scour 4 The physical factors affecting tidal scour include: Peak tidal velocities Variations between ood velocity and ebb velocity Range of tidal amplitude between neaps and spring tides Locations and shapes of scour under different ow conditions Cumulative effect of a series of tides Bridges on rivers (subjected to oods or accidents) seem to be affected the most Historic failures due to ood scour in the US and abroad: Table 34 lists some of the recorded scour failures in the US, Canada, Germany, Britain, Austria, Portugal, India, China, South Korea, and Australia
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