qr code windows phone 8.1 c# THE STUDY OF MODES OF FAILURE in Software

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In practice, failures occur in different forms in a material They are likely to be different for steel, concrete, and timber bridges Physical forms of failure can be seen as in nitely large deformation and metallurgical disintegration of elements It can be localized cracking without causing collapse or discontinuity and total separation of a bridge component Common types of failures are: 1 2 3 4 Yielding (metals crushing, tearing or formation of ductile or brittle plastic hinges) Buckling (metals, web buckling) Crushing (concrete) Fracture and fatigue (metals and concrete reduced material resistance, local hairline cracks, minor or major cracks in the deck slab, girders or abutments, reversal of stress in welds and connections, vibrations) Rupture (shearing) Large deformations (metals and concrete impact, sway, violent shaking during seismic events, erosion of soil in oods, settlement due to expansive soils) Stress concentrations (concrete deck slabs with sharp skew) Corrosion (metals and concrete reduction in material area)
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Forms of Failure
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For composite beams, plastic hinges form at midspan and for continuous beams at supports Visible tension yielding occurs in the bottom ange and at the continuous supports at the top ange accompanied by cracking at the surface of the slab In prestressed concrete beams, collapse may occur due to principal tensile stress at anchorages or breakage of the corroded strands
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1 Usually it is a combination of more than one type of force that causes failure For example, dead load stress must always be combined with one or more external transient forces to apply a compound critical stress If dead load stress is already high and approaching the elastic limit, any applied force or stress will exceed the allowable limit and lead to failure
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BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING
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2 As discussed earlier, construction dif culties, wind, hurricane, tornado, ood, support settlement, earthquakes, and tsunamis are some of the major environmental forces responsible for failures Physical causes are varied, such as vibrations, wind, extreme events, reversal of stress, impact, erosion, and violent shaking during earthquakes 3 Wind, earthquakes, and oods are acting at random in multi-dimensions In the mathematical model, they are resolved in three directions at right angles The vertical component of wind or an earthquake may be smaller than the two horizontal components, but can cause uplift of a bridge deck over the bearings and therefore is important The magnitude of a seismic vertical component will depend upon the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake Seismic forces acting at right angles to each other in a given plane can be resolved with maximum stress occurring in the resultant direction 4 For modi cations to existing structures, speci cations used for original design need to be checked against the latest LRFD speci cations 5 Studies have revealed the following causes (also addressed in Section 34): Construction problems and dif culties seem to be the biggest issue Lack of timely inspection, maintenance, or neglect: The expected life of 75 years or more for modern bridges and their components may not be achieved without effective inspection, structural evaluation, and timely rehabilitation Design de ciencies, bridge design code violations, and in-depth analysis Truss types and non-redundant structural systems are most vulnerable Use of inferior material in some cases such as cast iron when wrought iron was available Today, HPS 70W steel plates fabricated with high strength welds are available Acts of man, such as vandalism For bridges located on rivers, impact from ships and soil erosion from oods account for most failures Acts of God such as accidents, re, explosions, and extreme weather events 6 Any one of the above factors may contribute to bridge failure or may trigger a collapse However, failures can only occur due to a combination of loads of which the principal or additional cause can be one of those listed above The load combinations have been de ned by AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Speci cations, 2004 AASHTO load combinations do not include accidents, res, or vandalism However, AASHTO rating speci cations address details of inspection and the Manual on Rehabilitation addresses repair and maintenance
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