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BRIDGE FAILURE STUDIES AND SAFETY ENGINEERING
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NTSB Report HAR-94-03; US Towboat Chris Collision with the Judge William Seeber Bridge, New Orleans, LA, May 28, 1993 NTSB Report HAR-94-02; Tractor-Semi Trailer Collision with Bridge Columns on Interstate 65, Evergreen, AL, May 19, 1993 NTSB Report HAR-90-03; Collapse of the Harrison Road Bridge Spans, Miami town, OH, May 26, 1989 NTSB Report HAR-90-01; Collapse of the Northbound US Route 51 Bridge Spans Over the Hatchie River Near Covington, Tennessee, April 1, 1989 NTSB Report HAR-89-04; Collapse of the SR 675 Bridge Spans Over the Pocomoke River Near Pocomoke City, Maryland, August 17, 1988 NTSB Report HAR-88-02; Collapse of New York Thruway (I-90) Bridge Over the Schoharie Creek, Near Amsterdam, New York, April 5, 1987
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An Analytical Approach to Fracture and Failure
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41 THEORETICAL CONCEPTS USED IN DEVELOPING COMPUTER SOFTWARE
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411 Analysis for Engineering Maintenance
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Section Overview
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Developments in theory, design, rating, and code methods used in computer software Strength and serviceability methods for structural evaluation and rating, which form the basis for repair and resonstruction AASHTO load combinations for live loads and extreme conditions are extended to construction conditions
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One of the continuous duties of an engineer is maintenance Maintenance is not just patching concrete It includes preventing failure by managing, disciplining, and applying structural mechanics to the structural domain of bridge components, made up of single or composite materials 3 covered reasons for failure It is important to understand both the mechanics/mechanisms behind a failure and the applicable theory of yielding and fracture so that future designs can be made safer Retro t of bridge components, widening or replacement usually require use of computer software Theories of both elasticity and plasticity are required to understand the behavior of a bridge or a given member In general, at failure nonlinear behavior due to large deformations or due to formation of plastic hinges (nonlinear stress) will take place In this chapter, facilitated computer-based analysis based on understanding of the component behavior In addition the review of fundamental concepts, ner points in analysis such as arching action in deck slabs, theories of yielding of steel (due to Tresca and Von Mises), modi ed compression eld theory (MCFT), and simpli ed bending and shear formulae under moving loads for single span girders are addressed It will be noted that the more accurate the analytical methods, besides safety, the greater the economy in design Hand calculations are kept to a minimum since in the design of ce the culture of obtaining numerical solutions is shifted to software usage 412 Diagnostic and Preservation Approach to Analysis Criteria for effective performance can best be satis ed by a diagnostic and preservation approach All diagnostic or preservation design is based on analysis of the de cient structure and the remodeled or rehabilitated structures
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Section 2
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Strengthening and Repair Work
SECTION 2
STRENGTHENING AND REPAIR WORK
No reliable design is possible without accurately knowing the deformations, bending moments, shear forces, and foundation reactions under real and projected environmental conditions Practical considerations will not be overlooked when analyzing or redesigning for rehabilitation Diagnostic analysis will address a variety of issues, including: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Meeting any security needs against bomb blasts for maintaining important bridges Creating minimum environmental impacts Meeting constructability requirements Achieving the expected serviceability Low initial construction or life cycle costs Easy inspectability Preserving aesthetics Resisting extreme conditions of design for earthquakes and ood scour
Diagnostic and Preservation Methods
For new or replacement design, the theoretical approach is based on conventional theories laid down in s 3 and 4 of AASHTO LRFD speci cations The application of theoretical tools used for rehabilitation is also similar; for example, the stiffness matrix and nite elements method are still applicable However, for bridge rehabilitation the unknowns are greater Hence, the objectives or requirements and the physical procedures in the eld are site speci c and need to be carried out on a case-by-case basis Examples of diagnostic and preservation methods are: 1 Analysis for staged construction: Parapet or girder replacement would require lane closure and partial bridge shut down Since structural behavior is modi ed, a new analysis of the superstructure would be required 2 Jacking the beam ends at abutments and piers: For bearing repairs and replacement, it is customary to apply the load upwards by using hydraulic jacks Jacks are placed directly under the beams or a jacking beam is installed Since the direction of load causes tension in the slab, grid beam, analysis is required to limit the bending and shear stresses and to control vertical de ection Jacking load is applied in successive increments of 1/16 to 1/8 inch 3 Deck replacement: An analysis of girders is required for concrete pour sequence and for new loads from a deck slab Both non-composite and composite cases need to be considered 4 Seismic retro t: Placing of isolation bearings would change the structural behavior of the members during a seismic event Seismic analysis is required to design bearings 5 Providing scour countermeasures: Scour analysis based on HEC-18 and HEC-23 methods would be required 6 Rehabilitation for movable bridges, curved bridges, segmental and cable-stayed bridges, erection loads, painting loads, etc present additional challenges For analysis, the mathematical model should match eld conditions rather than be based on unrealistic assumptions 7 Underpinning of foundations: To prevent the settlement of foundations, a dead load analysis of the bridge substructure and superstructure is required 8 Post widening behavior: It is important that the remodeled bridge behave as a single structure rather than two or more separate structures New concrete materials for widening have different shrinkage and creep strains than the old concrete A new foundation is likely to settle more than the existing foundation Old fascia girders need to be analyzed as interior girders with increased live loads Longitudinal joints need to be checked for seismic response in the transverse direction
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