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Table 47 Comparison of permit loads in three states Comparisons of permit vehicles Distance between axles Total weight NJ DOT permit vehicle 160 m 890 KN Caltran 9 axle (P 9) 2264 m 973 KN PennDOT P-82 1665 m 910 KN
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Table 48 Comparison of maximum live loads with NJDOT permit vehicles Short spans Medium spans Long spans Factored AASHTO ML governs NJ DOT Permit vehicle governs Factored AASHTO HL-93 governs
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Steel, due to its superior strength and long-term performance, is best suited for medium and long spans The old practice for medium span lengths for bridges was to weld cover plates on rolled sections in high-tension areas, such as at the midspan Due to repetitive loads, fatigue of tension welds has been a problem, since it reduces the working life of expensive steel bridges Also, regular monitoring of fatigue-prone details increases maintenance costs
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4122 Selection of Girder Depth for De ection Control
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AASHTO requirements based on limiting maximum live load de ection: AASHTO Table 25263-1 provides guidelines for minimum depth as follows: Minimum overall depth of composite I Minimum depth of steel truss Minimum depth of prestressed concrete I girder 004 L for simple spans 0032 L for continuous spans 01 L for simple or continuous spans girder and CIP box beams 0045 L for simple span and 004 L for continuous spans 003 L for simple spans and 0025 L for continuous spans
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Minimum depth of adjacent box beams
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Any deviation for use of a shallower depth needs to be justi ed by detailed calculations Other structural requirements: 1 Repetitive de ections cause fatigue, debonding of reinforcing bars, cracking in deck slabs and wearing surfaces, and affects durability adversely 2 High instantaneous de ections cause discomfort for motorists 3 Bearing rotations during construction result in large de ections Camber needs to be provided in girders to minimize dead load de ection Limiting live load de ections on long spans: 1 All design lanes shall be loaded Lane reduction factors are applicable for two or more lanes 2 For straight girders, distribution factor for de ection Number of lanes/Number of girders 3 Dynamic load allowance (impact factor) shall be applied 4 For vehicular loads, maximum computed live load de ection L/800 5 For vehicular and pedestrian loads, maximum computed de ection is 25 percent lower, ie,
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AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO FRACTURE AND FAILURE
x No of lanes No of beams 6 For vehicular loads on cantilever arms, maximum computed de ection L/300 7 For vehicular and pedestrian loads on cantilever spans, maximum computed de ection is 25 percent lower, ie, L/375 8 De ection check is optional in current AASHTO LRFD code L/1000 L pedestrian/No of beams vehicle
REVIEW OF COMMON FAILURE THEORIES OF MATERIALS
Failures Related to Construction Materials
In 3, external reasons for failure were based on: 1 Design defects such as incorrect assumptions, error in data, incorrect analysis, non-compliance with code guidelines, incorrect connection details, and mistakes in drawings 2 Construction defects such as poor workmanship, substandard materials, inadequate concrete curing, imperfections in steel, lack of t, and lack of quality control 3 Investigating probable modes of failure: The response of materials to external forces like steel and concrete is discussed here Postmortem of collapse reveals details of sudden or progressive collapse Large displacements result in combined shear and bending type overstress in members Critical sections for plastic hinges to form are located at midspan, under the concentrated load where de ection or positive bending moment is highest, or at a support where shear force, reaction, or negative bending moment is the highest Tension yielding occurs in the ange
4132 Modes of Failure for Steel Bridges:
1 2 3 4 5 6
Bending tension stress in a member is exceeded due to long-term fatigue Shear stress or principal tensile stress is exceeded at girder supports Failure of bolts or welds at joints Local buckling of compression members Increased thermal stress in members due to malfunction of bearings Foundation movement due to ood scour during oods leading to settlement of pier or abutment 7 Settlement of pier or abutment due to liquefaction during earthquake 8 Lack of adequate support width at abutment during earthquake
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