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An occasional problem with BD is lack of proper synchronization between the audio and the video) Players are, sometimes, partly to blame for the problem but steps can be taken during production to keep synchronization tight Check the timecodes on the audio to make sure they are correct A handy trick for testing audio sync, especially when no timecodes exist and it has to be aligned by hand, is to bump the audio track forward several frames, check playback, bump it back several frames from the original position, and check playback again If moving it one direction had little or no effect, while moving in the other direction had a very big effect, chances are that the original position was not optimal4 Further, make sure the master print was not incorrectly dubbed before being transferred to video If sync steadily worsens, check to see if non-drop timecode is being used on the audio master The difference between 2997 and 30 fps will slowly move the audio out of sync with the video Also make sure the film chain in the telecine machine is run at the proper video speed If sync suddenly changes, suspect a slip during a reel change in the telecine process or an edit in the NLE system, independent of the audio
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Subtitles can be prepared graphics, like with DVD, or they can be text that is rendered by the player Graphics or text subtitles are presented on top of the video using the Presentation Graphics plane, and behind any Java graphics (which are in the Interactive Graphics plane) Subtitles are basically the timed display of a text file or a graphic The possible uses for subtitles are endless They can expand and alter existing video, emphasize regions on the screen, cover or censor, tint the video a different color, add a logo bug, and so on A handy feature of subtitles is that they can be forced to appear under program control This is especially useful for multilanguage discs because the video can be clean and the subtitle can be made to appear in the appropriate language during playback of the disc Subtitles can be used to create limited animation overlaying the video A graphic subtitle rate of 15 frames per second is the practical limit for many players, although anything faster than 2 per second may cause problems on some players Lowering the maximum data rate for the other streams that are present can help avoid problems Likewise, using simple pictures that encode more efficiently than large, complex ones can make all the difference Effects such as fade, wipe, and crawl can be performed by the player Good subtitling software will be able to add the display commands needed to create these effects
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The following tips will assist you in preparing subtitles j Subtitles cannot cross chapter points or mark IDs
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4When using this trick, keep in mind that synchronization problems in audio delayed behind the video are less perceptible than in audio that precedes the video
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Production Essentials
j Pre-rendered subtitles (graphic subtitles), need to be rendered for HD as
Presentation Graphics (8-bit indexed palette graphics) and setup for a 1920 1080 display SD subtitles that were made for DVD will look low resolution and aliased when attempting to reuse for HD j Subtitles that will be rendered by the player (TextST) are limited to 25-50 characters per second (cps) You may have to adjust/edit the dialog and/or translations to meet this rate Graphic based subtitles do not have this cps limitation Subtitling, particularly creating foreign language subtitles, is a tricky job best given to a subtitling house Provide the subtitling service with a proxy video copy that has clear audio and burned-in timecode (BITC) that exactly matches the BD video master This is critical for frame-accurate subtitling work; timing is very important You may request that the subtitle source be provided in text form rather than graphic form, as text is much easier to change, but text subtitles must then be turned into graphics unless you are using player-rendered text If you are using player-rendered text, the subtitling house must use the same font as you will distribute on the disc Please note that when you distribute a font on a disc, you must either license the font (and pay the appropriate fee, unless it is a free font) or create your own font In most cases, you are better off using subtitles that have been pre-rendered to graphics If you are creating your own subtitles, consider the following j Don t use serif fonts Sans serif fonts are easier to read, as the serifs tend to create single-pixel horizontal lines that produce interlaced twittering j Use a drop shadow or an outline, either black or translucent (using the alpha channel of PNGs) j Each new subtitle should appear at the scene change, not at the dialog start This provides more on-screen time, and studies show that it reduces reading fatigue j Center the subtitles If there is more than one line, left-justify the lines within the centered position (or right-justify the lines for right-to-left writing systems) Justifying the lines makes them easier to scan j Try to limit subtitles to two lines Keep the first line shorter, which covers less video and clues in the eye that there is another line j If there is more than one speaker, indicate speaker change with a hyphen at the beginning of the line j Display subtitles for no less than one second and no longer than seven seconds j Keep in mind that jumping to the middle of a scene, or using fast forward or rewind, will not refresh a subtitle Subtitles with long periods will take a long time to appear To avoid this problem, you may wish to repeat the same subtitle at intervals of five to ten seconds, if necessary j Proofread! With thousands of subtitles, especially in foreign languages, it is easy for misspellings to occur
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