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chose to reduce both the line rate and the field rate by the fraction 1001/1000, effectively dropping those rates to about 15734 kHz and 5994 Hz, respectively Thus the 5994 rate was born!5 Unfortunately the field rate of 60 divided by 1001, rounded to 5994 for convenience, means that 60 fields consumes slightly more than one second, so 30 frames no longer agrees with one second of clock time As a side note, this precipitated the invention of dropframe timecode that, ostensibly, alleviated this disparity Regrettably, the shortsighted, although pragmatic, FCC decision helped to bring about the frame and video rate complexity that exists today This is further amplified by the continuing convergence of video and computer technologies and terminologies, let alone the emergence of high definition standards and formats As noted in the Introduction, a billion might mean something other than a thousand million
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With the exceptions of cinema, computer displays, and HDTVs, we are in a universe of NTSC and PAL television systems Even with cinema, though, that may be the initial display, only to be rapidly followed by conversion to video for alternate market exploitation Thus, no matter the acquisition, television boundaries will be encountered by virtually every production The explosion in frame rate flexibility of video acquisition cameras has been generated by the desire to match film acquisition settings, so that a video camera can achieve the cine-look of film That is a highly subjective goal One person s cine- is another person s (fill in your own word here) At the upper reaches of the technology, that is to say the more expensive end of the spectrum, the cine-look attained by a video camera is indistinguishable from a film source And there are tools that can be used that will enhance footage from a lower-end camera that may render the final product compatible with a satisfactory film-like look But, when using video tools in place of film, extreme care must be exercised in all aspects of image preparation lighting, set design, cast choices, costumes, makeup, time of day and phase of the moon It must be understood that video tools have limitations in extreme conditions that may preclude their use If the image acquired by the source is less than desired, no amount of manipulation after the get can save the picture But what exactly is frame rate Is it a component of acquisition or of display, or both You re probably not gonna love us for this oneit is both, and more Frame rate in acquisition establishes the speed with which action is transcribed to media, capturing moments in time either as two fields or as a frame Frame rate in display establishes the frequency with which frames are presented for viewing Frame rate is expressed in the number of frames per second, or, by the number of frames in Hertz What s Hertz Hertz is a unit of frequency equivalent to cycles per second Alternating current of 60 cycles per second can be called 60 Hertz Hertz is abbreviated Hz
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5Actually, the number 5994 is rounded off, as the fraction results in an incomplete number that repeats the integers in the sequence 599400599400599400599400599400forever
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Additionally, there are two methods of frame construction interlace and progressive Interlace is the method of interweaving the two fields that comprise a frame Progressive is the method of contiguously presenting all of the lines that comprise a frame, as in a snapshot Interlace is represented as i and progressive is represented as p There are five primary frame rate standards for television and movies j 30i: 30 frames interlaced, comprised of 60 fields For NTSC, this is really 5994 fields, interlaced, composing 2997 frames per second j 30p: 30 frames, progressive, for video cameras, producing an image without interlaced field artifacts For NTSC, this is really 2997 frames per second j 25i: 25 frames interlaced, comprised of 50 fields j 25p: 25 frames progressive j 24p: 24 frames, progressive, for film and capable video cameras Depending on the camera, there are any number of frame rates that may be used for the acquisition rate With a film camera, the standard acquisition rate is either 24 or 25 frames per second (fps), depending on the region of display Film cameras can be run off-speed, either sped up or slowed down, to accomplish various special effects and/or to capture scenes under unique conditions Since their invention, NTSC color video cameras have captured images at the rate of 5994 fields per second Nowadays, high definition capable video cameras can be set to record either 5994 fields per second or 5994 frames per second, as well as rates from 2 frames per second to 60 frames per second Unfortunately, we identify all of these rates with the abbreviation fps Very often, the goal is to give video images a cine-look , so the opportunity to shoot footage at a rate equivalent to the film rate is highly prized However, 5994 fields per second is equal to shooting 2997 frames per second We have to get from 2997 to 24, and you cannot get there from there But you can get to 239766, which is sometimes rounded to 2398 Employing the frame rate of 2398 also allows for an easy expansion to the 2997 or 5994 rates by the use of what are called pulldown techniques, wherein fields or frames are duplicated to meet the higher rate This allows for the integration of cine-look video with other video assets, as well as the presentation of the footage via television (Although that might defeat the quest for cine- , wouldn t it But we digress ) Further, with sophisticated circuitry, sensors and integrated chips, some video cameras may be set to record 24 frames per second, also known as true 24 However, 24 fps is not natively compatible with an NTSC display, but video shot at 24 frames per second can readily integrate with film originals that are shot at 24 frames per second It is this fluidity of medium that accommodates the extensive use of computer generated imagery and augmentation that is evident in motion pictures today As noted earlier, if you are producing for theatrical presentation exclusively you can establish 24 fps as the production criteria, whether shooting film or video The follow-on production steps would all respect the 24 fps rate, and all will remain as intended
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623976 is shorthand for the result of dividing 24 by 1,001 The actual quotient is the incomplete number 23976002397600239760023976forever, akin to the result that gives us 5994
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