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to the player The limited set of aspect ratios presently supported by the MPEG-2 standard (4:3, 16:9, and 221:1) also may have had something to do with it Figure 226 Relative Display Sizes for Letterbox Display
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Most Blu-ray Disc video is in native widescreen resolution However, the Blu-ray specification does allow for 144031080 anamorphic high definition video and standard definition anamorphic video So, the option still remains to transfer a 185 movie to a 4:3 aspect ratio instead of 16:9, thus creating a pillarbox presentation when viewing on widescreen At first glance, there may seem to be no advantage in doing this because 185 movies are so close to 16:9 (178) It seems simpler to do a 16:9 transfer and let the player create a letterbox or pan and scan version, when viewing on a 4:3 display However, there are disadvantages to having the player automatically format a widescreen movie for 4:3 display the vertical resolution suffers by 25 percent, the letterbox mattes are visible on movies wider than 185, and the player is limited to lateral motion In addition, many movie people are averse to what they consider as surrendering creative control to the player Therefore, almost every pan and scan transfer is done in the studio and not enabled in the player During the transfer from film to video, the engineer has the freedom to use the full frame or to zoom in for closer shots, which is especially handy when a microphone or a piece of the set is visible at the edge of the shot Many directors are violently opposed to pan and scan disfigurement of their films Director Sydney Pollack sued a Danish television station for airing a pan and scan version of his Three Days of the Condor, which was filmed in 235 Cinemascope Pollack felt strongly that the pan and scan version infringed his artistic copyright He believed that, The director s job is to tell the film story, and the basis for doing this is to choose what the audience is supposed to see, and not just generally but exactly what they are to see Some directors, such as Stanley Kubrick, accept only the original aspect ratio Others, such as James Cameron, who closely supervise the transfer process from full-frame film, feel that the director is responsible for making the pan and scan transfer a viable option by recomposing the movie to make the most of the 4:3 TV shape
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About two-thirds of widescreen movies are filmed using a 185 aspect ratio When a 185 film is transferred directly to full-frame 4:3 by including the extra picture at the top and bottom, the actual size of the images on the TV are the same as for a letterbox version In other words, letterboxing only covers the part of the picture that also was covered in the theater A pan and scan transfer to 4:3 makes the I didn t pay good money for my 30-inch TV just to watch black bars crowd happy, but a letterbox transfer to 16:9 is still needed to appease the videophiles who demand the theatrical aspect ratio and to keep the I paid good money for my widescreen TV crowd from revolting As widescreen TVs replace traditional TVs, 4:3 transfers will become less common, and even letterboxed 4:3 transfers will become more appreciated
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One of the biggest problems facing early television designers was displaying images fast enough to achieve a smooth illusion of motion Early video hardware was simply not fast enough to provide the required flicker fusion frequency of around 50 or 60 frames per second The ingenious expedient solution was to cut the amount of information in half by alternately transmitting every other line of the picture (see Figure 227) The engineers counted on the persistence of the phosphors in the television tube to make the two pictures blur into one This approach to image presentation is continued with the high definition format of 1080 lines, first the 540 odd lines are sent and displayed, followed by the 540 even lines This is called interlaced scanning Each half of a frame is called a field Figure 227 Interlaced Scan and Progressive Scan
The alternative approach, progressive scanning, displays every line of a complete frame in one sweep Progressive scanning requires twice the frequency in order to achieve the same refresh rate Progressive scan monitors have generally been used for computers since their introduction And progressive scanning is also used for HDTV Progressive scan provides a superior picture, overcoming many disadvantages of interlaced scanning In interlaced scanning, small details, especially thin horizontal lines, appear only in every other field This causes a disturbing flicker effect, which you can see when someone on TV is wearing stripes The flicker problem is especially noticeable when computer video signals are converted and displayed on a standard TV In addition to flicker, line crawl occurs when vertical motion matches the scanning rate Interlaced scanning also caus-
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