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Figure 53 BD Dual-layer Construction
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Blu-ray rewritable discs have a structure similar to Blu-ray read-only (BD-ROM) discs (see Table 53) They are produced using one or two phase-change recording layers with a high-frequency modulated groove to provide addressing information and speed control for the recorder Wobble period is approximately 5 m, with embedded addresses in address in pregroove (ADIP) units of 56 wobbles ADIP information is stored using minimum-shift-keying (MSK) modulation and saw-tooth wobble (STW) Data is written in the groove rather than on the land between
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Blu-ray write-once discs are similar to Blu-ray rewritable (BD-RE) discs, although the recording layers can be formulated with organic dye, inorganic alloys such as Si/Cu, or writeonce phase-change material (see Table 54) Data can be written in the groove or on the groove (on the land between)
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Table 53 BD-RE Characteristics
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Recording material Recording method Write power (1x) Address tracking Wobble frequency (1x) Channel bits per wobble Nominal wobble length Storage temperature Storage humidity Operating temperature Operating humidity Phase change In groove <7 mW (SL), <12 mW (DL) High-frequency modulated wobbled groove with addresses 956522 kHz 69 51405 m -10 to 55 C (14 to 131 F), 15 C (59 F)/h change 5 to 90% relative, 1 to 30 g/m3 absolute, 10%/h change 5 to 55 C (41 to 131 F) 3 to 90% relative, 05 to 30 g/m3 absolute Transmission stack thickness 0095 to 0105 mm ( 0002) (TS0), 0070 to 0080 mm ( 0002) (TS1)
Table 54 BD-R Characteristics
Recording material Recording method Write power (1x) Address tracking Wobble frequency (1x) Channel bits per wobble Nominal wobble length Storage temperature Storage humidity Operating temperature Operating humidity Organic dye, inorganic alloy, or phase change On groove or in groove <6 mW High-frequency modulated wobbled groove with addresses 956522 kHz 69 51405 m -10 to 55 C (14 to 131 F), 15 C (59 F)/h change 5 to 90% relative, 1 to 30 g/m3 absolute, 10%/h change 5 to 55 C (41 to 131 F) 3 to 90% relative, 05 to 30 g/m3 absolute Transmission stack thickness 0095 to 0105 mm ( 0002) (TS0), 0070 to 0080 mm ( 0002) (TS1)
BD Error Correction
Error correction is the same for all BD formats Data is recorded in 64K partitions, called clusters, each containing 32 data frames with 2048 bytes of user data each 64KB clusters are protected by two error-correction mechanisms The first is a long-distance code (LDC) using Reed-Solomon (RS) in a (248, 216, 33) structure The second error-correction mechanism multiplexes the data with a burst indicator subcode (BIS) using (62, 30, 33) Reed-Solomon codewords BIS includes addressing information and application-dependent control data information (18 bytes per data frame) BIS pinpoints long burst errors that can then be removed to improve LDC error correction
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A data frame holds 2048 bytes of user data and 4 bytes of simple error-detection code (EDC) for a total of 2052 bytes Each data frame is scrambled to spread the bits around Then, 32 data frames are combined into a data block with 216 rows of 304 columns Each column is one byte A data block is extended into an LDC block by appending the LDC codes for the data block as 32 rows of 304 columns The LDC block is internally interleaved and shifted to improve burst error correction, resulting in an LDC cluster of 152 columns and 496 rows The 64KB physical cluster is divided into 16 address units (AU) The 4-byte address unit numbers are derived from the physical sector numbers and together with 1 byte of flags, 4 bytes of error correction, and user control data, they make up the data used for the BIS, which goes through a RS (62, 30, 33) coding and is arranged into a BIS cluster of 496 rows by 3 columns The LDC cluster is split into four groups of 38 columns, and each of the three columns from the BIS cluster is inserted between them, forming an ECC cluster An additional column of frame sync bits is added at the beginning of the ECC cluster and DC control bits are inserted to form a recording frame of 496 rows by 155 columns, also called a physical cluster
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