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Video Formats
The Blu-ray specification supports three high-definition video codecs MPEG-2, SMPTE VC-1, and MPEG-4 AVC That triples the amount of supported video codecs compared to DVD Although the MPEG-2 codec is very well understood, given its legacy from DVD, the situation is different with VC-1 and AVC Both of these codecs are considered more advanced and can achieve better compression ratios In other words, the algorithms used by such advanced codecs are much more complex, but as a result, a better video quality can be achieved with much lower data rates In addition to the various video codecs, there are also a number of resolutions and frame rates to choose from The full high-definition resolution (also known as Full HD) of 1920 1080 pixels is supported, but Blu-ray also allows for smaller resolutions to be used, such as, 1280 720, 720 576 (PAL), and 720 480 (NTSC) This begs the question of how these different resolutions and, particularly, their aspect ratios, will be rendered on the various screens available (see figure 67 and 68) For instance, how is 4:3 content rendered on a 16:9 widescreen display, or vice versa Ideally, the aspect ratio of the source content should be respected, otherwise the picture will look distorted As an example, if the source content is 4:3 and played back on a 16:9 widescreen display, it will be stretched, making the actors look fat Since that is certainly not desired, the setting on the display should be changed to a pillarbox presentation by adding black bars on the left and right of the picture which remains in the original aspect ratio
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Figure 67 Display Formats of 4:3 Aspect Ratio Content
4:3 content
16:9 display
16:9 display
4:3 display
Stretched
Pillarbox
Fullscreen
Figure 68 Display Formats of 16:9 Aspect Ratio Content
16:9 content
4:3 display
4:3 display
16:9 display
Pan & scan
Letterbox
Widescreen
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Each of the video resolutions allow for different kinds of frame rates as detailed in Table 610 The typical Hollywood movie is shot with a film camera, which natively produces 24 frames per second This film frame rate is translated to 23976 frames per second to accommodate NTSC television sets Content can also be acquired through other video acquisition methods, which results in different frame rates For instance, some high-definition video cameras can mimic film and record at 24 frames per second, or even 2997 frames per second in interlaced mode Table 610 Supported Resolutions and Frame Rates for Primary Video on Blu-ray Disc
Resolution Frame Rates
1920 1080 1280 720 720 576 720 480
2997i, 25i, 24p, 23976p 5994p, 50p, 24p, 23976p 25i 2997i
There are two modes in which video can be rendered to the screen interlaced and progressive A small letter p after the frame rate (eg, 24p) indicates progressive mode, while a small letter i (eg, 2997i) indicates interlaced mode In interlaced mode, a frame is composed of two fields, which display successively All odd-number lines (eg, 1, 3, 5, ) will be rendered to the screen as the first field, and the even line numbers (eg ,2, 4, 6, ) will be rendered as the second field to compose the full frame image This is traditionally used for legacy television displays However, the trend for home entertainment is to become more and more like home theatres, so a native film resolution using progressive frames is desired This means that rather than splitting the frame into two fields, an entire frame is rendered at once Even though computer displays already use progressive display for a long time, only recent introductions of next-generation television sets, such as, LCD or Plasma displays, or others, allow the same frame rate film viewing experience Figure 69 describes the difference between interlaced and progressive mode Figure 69 Interlaced versus Progressive Display Modes
Interlaced Mode (fields) F i e l d 1 Television display F i e l d 2 Computer displays, next generation video displays Progressive Mode (frames)
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