94 DC Standar ds and Practices
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A proper wiring diagram shows every electrical device: circuit breaker, fuse, switch, terminal, and conductor, as well as wire size, color, and label It makes troubleshooting a snap If a light doesn t come on, the diagram shows exactly where to check for voltage, all the way from the lamp back to the distribution panel A circuit diagram also shows the best place to tie in additional electrical equipment, what spares to carry, and whether or not you are fused correctly Best of all, if you create your circuit diagram by visually inspecting your existing wiring, you will have looked systematically at every component and may be able to spot potential problems before they become problems underway
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Creating a Wiring Diagram
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Circuit symbols are, like international road signs, intended to convey meaning at a glance Unlike international signage, however, there is no rigorous standard for wiring symbols Figure 61 shows commonly used symbols for most of the simple devices encountered in a boat If these don t work for you, feel free to invent your own For example, you may elect to show a fan as a fan blade and a fuse as a simple rectangle If you possess the repair manual for your engine (a minimal and wise investment), it probably contains a wiring diagram for the starting motor, alternator, and instrument panel If so, you are in luck; you are already halfway there Consider the engine diagram to be the rst of your circuit diagrams and adopt its style for the rest of your diagrams Breaking the total system into a set of circuits has the added advantages of smaller sheets of paper, less confusion, and the ability to make changes without redrawing the entire system A complete set of circuit diagrams for a typical pleasure boat might include: Engine wiring Engine-starting circuit Cabin lights and accessories Navigation lights Instrumentation and radios 110 VAC system Main distribution panel Mast wiring Water pumps Don t worry if several of your diagrams overlap The intent is to locate the general area of a fault and then to isolate the exact location within that area
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Fig 61 Wiring Symbols
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Switch (SPST) single-pole single-throw
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Switch (SPDT) single-pole double-throw
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Conductors, no connection
Switch (DPST) double-pole single-throw
Conductors, connected Switch (PBNO) push-button normally open
Battery, single cell or voltage source
A Starter-Motor Circuit Figure 62 shows a very simple diagram of an engine starter-motor circuit If one day you turn on the ignition switch, push the start button, and nothing happens, this is the circuit diagram you will need A complete engine wiring diagram would probably contain the same information, but it would also contain all of the meters, idiot lights, and alternator wiring, adding considerable visual confusion For the starter-motor circuit all you need to see are the: Battery switch Fuse between battery switch common terminal and engine panel On/Off switch Momentary start switch Wire from starting switch to solenoid Heavy positive cable from battery-select common terminal to solenoid Heavy negative cable from battery negative terminal to engine negative terminal If the engine won t turn over, the problem probably lies somewhere in this diagram For guidance, see page 64
Fig 62 Typical Starter-Motor Circuit
+12V 1 Battery switch 2
+12V Engine panel Fuse on engine (30A) ON OFF Key switch
START Push button
W i r i n g D ia gr am s
A Cabin Lighting Circuit Although it shows 15 separate lights and fans, the cabin lighting diagram in Figure 63 is even simpler in concept than the engine starter circuit The diagram consists of two similar, but separate, branch circuits On the right is the starboard cabin lighting circuit, originating at a 10-amp circuit breaker in the DC distribution panel and running forward to serve all of the lights and fans on the starboard side The positive conductor is a red AWG (American Wire Gauge) 14 wire labeled 27 The negative conductor is a black AWG 14 wire labeled 28 Except for the two paralleled main cabin lights, each light and fan is controlled by an individual single-pole, single-throw switch You may wish to include model numbers and speci cations for each device so that you can calculate current draws and nd replacement parts The devices are drawn on paper as laid out in the boat so that we can physically pinpoint a problem For example, if the chart table light failed, but the main aft light still worked, the circuit diagram would allow us to immediately isolate the problem to either the chart table light or the lamp s controlling switch On the other hand, if the main aft, main forward, and V-berth lights failed as well, we would suspect the problem to be in either the positive or negative conductors or the connections between the night light and the chart table light On the left is the similar port cabin lighting circuit, originating at a 10-amp circuit breaker in the DC distribution panel and running forward to serve all of the lights and fans on the port side The positive conductor is a red AWG 14 wire labeled 29 The negative conductor is a black AWG 14 wire labeled 30