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Figure 75 shows a simple AC circuit without the complications of a grounding wire Until a load is plugged into the receptacle, the circuit from the hot (black) wire to the neutral (white) wire remains open Although voltage exists between hot and neutral, no current ows because the circuit is not complete
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Fig 75 A Simple AC Circuit
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Fig 76 Three-Phase AC
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Shore-power connection 15A/120V receptacle
180 270 Phase Angle, Degrees
Neutral wire (White)
The relationship between voltage and current is usefully expressed by the load s power factor, PF PF = Watts (Volts Amps) where: Watts = true power consumed Volts = measured volts Amps = measured amps
Load, Z
Current
Voltage
At the bottom we have plugged a load (a motor, for example) into the receptacle with a two-prong plug Now current ows because the circuit has been closed, or completed, through the load Note that the load is labeled Z instead of R Z is the symbol for impedance, the AC equivalent of resistance Impedance consists of a combination of the load s DC resistance and its reactance (transient reaction to changing voltage) We won t go into the mathematics, but capacitors accept voltage changes readily, while inductors (coils) oppose voltage change For this reason, the relationship between voltage and current in an AC circuit is not one to one, as it is in DC circuits, but is a function of frequency Figure 76 shows plots of both voltage and current in our AC motor circuit In this example, the motor load possesses inductance, so the current lags behind the voltage by phase angle If the load were more capacitive than inductive, voltage would lag current, and would be negative
Were the load purely resistive, voltage and current would be in phase, watts would equal volts times amps, and the power factor would be 10 Since the load has an inductive component, however, voltage and current are never simultaneously at their maximum values, so the true power (instantaneous product of voltage and current) is less than the maximum voltage times the maximum current, and the power factor is less than 10 As shown in Figure 76, PF equals cos , the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current For purely resistive loads such as incandescent lamps, = 0 , so PF = 10 In the example shown, current lags behind voltage by 60 ( = 60 ), so PF = cos 60 = 05 The de nition of PF can also be written as Amps = Watts/(Volts PF) The above equation indicates the problem with small PF For the same wattage of useful power, halving PF doubles amps Greater amps means larger supply conductors, greater voltage drops, greater resistive heating, and decreased ef ciency The power factor of an electric motor can be very small when the rotor is stalled As a result, locked-rotor and start-up currents can be three to ve times normal running current, a factor which must be considered when protecting motor circuits
AC Basics
AC Safety
Electricity is dangerous yet indispensable in our lives Unfortunately the marine environment both worsens the hazards and degrades the materials Understanding AC electricity and its effects on the body should convince you of the importance of AC wiring standards, such as those promoted by the ABYC The basic safety problem stems from the fact that the human body is an electrochemical/mechanical system At the center of this system is an advanced computer the brain External stimuli are converted to electrical signals by transducers, such as the eyes (light to electricity), ears (sound to electricity) and nerves (touch and temperature to electricity) The electrical signals are conducted to the brain through nerve bers acting much like conducting wires The brain processes the incoming information and then sends out appropriate electrical signals in response The most obvious effect of the outgoing signals is the stimulation and contraction of muscles Herein lies the danger of externally applied electrical current Because the uids in your body have the same approximate composition as salt water, your body has the same electrical conductivity If you bridge an electrical circuit, you becomes a part of that circuit, and electric current ows through it Muscles in your body, including your heart, cannot distinguish between electrical signals from the brain and the electric current we call a shock If you are fortunate, the involuntary muscle contraction propels you away from the source A less fortunate reaction would be contraction of the muscles in the hand and a rigid grip on the source Worst of all would be current through the chest and heart muscle, resulting in interruption of your heartbeat Figure 77 compares the dangers of various current paths through the body The second panel shows a shock that, although painful and possibly resulting in a burn, is not usually life-threatening Since both hot and neutral or ground conductors are in the same hand, current ow is limited to the hand muscles Herein lies the danger of electrical shock The third gure explains why electricians often work with one hand in ticklish situations If one hand were to contact a hot wire or case and the other hand a ground, the resulting current ow would be directly through the chest The bottom gure illustrates the second dangerous situation: contact with a hot wire or case while standing on a wet and conductive ground The current ow is again directly through the chest and heart
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