Fig 86 A Transfer Switch in VS .NET

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Fig 86 A Transfer Switch
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Transfer switch AC input 1 AC output AC input 2
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Fig 87 Transfer Switch with Automatic Battery Charging
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Internal transfer switch AC output
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Internal transfer switch AC output
Inverter
Battery AC input
Charger
Fig 88 Shore-Power Generator-Inverter Switching with Transfer Switches
Battery
DC Shore power Generator External transfer switch AC Inverter in AC out
Large-load panel Air cond Water htr Range Spare
Small-load panel Stb out Port out Stereo Spare
Transfer Switching
Generators
Prior to the advent of ef cient, low-cost, solid-state inverters, the generator was the only source of AC power away from the dock Now, for loads up to about 2 kW, a combination of a large battery and inverter and a means for charging (such as engine alternator, solar panel, or wind machine) will produce AC power at half of the cost of power from the most economical generator For loads greater than 2,000 watts there is still no substitute for a generator For boats with large power budgets a generator-inverter combination is ideal The two types of AC generator are:
1 Alternator-type, in which the output is generated by the stator 2 Armature-type, in which the output is generated by the rotor
Alternator-Type Generators
In an alternator-type generator the magnetic eld is created by magnets and controlling eld coils on the rotor Output current is induced in xed stator coils located around the inside of the case In some generaFig 89 Alternator-Type Generator
tors, the eld current is generated through recti cation of a portion of the AC output and fed to the rotor through brushes just as in the automotive alternator Most generators, however, are brushless An exciter coil in the stator induces AC current in the rotor eld coils, which is then recti ed by a diode Figure 89 shows a simpli ed brushless alternatortype generator There are two large windings that provide the main generator output These may be in phase or out of phase If in phase, there will be two 120-volt AC outputs If out of phase, there will be two 120-volt AC outputs of opposite polarity, which can be combined for 240 volt AC The small coil to the right provides excitation for the eld coils of the rotor The small coil to the left provides input to a bridge recti er, which provides 12 volts DC for charging the generator s starting-motor battery Both main windings and the exciter winding are provided with multiple taps as shown at A, B, and C in Figure 89 Output voltage varies slightly with rpm and load, but the nominal voltage is changed by selecting different taps Output frequency can be controlled only by adjusting engine rpm
240VAC 12VDC 120VAC 120VAC
Voltage regulator
Auxiliary winding
Main winding
Main winding
Exciter winding
STATOR ROTOR
Field coil Field coil
Inver ters and Generators
Armature-Type Generators
All generators and alternators rely on the fact that an electric current is induced in either a moving wire in a magnetic eld or a stationary wire in a magnetic eld that is changing in intensity In an armature-type generator, the magnetic eld is created by a controlling eld current owing through xed coils that are placed around the stator (stationary coil) The stator is anchored to the outside case of the generator Output current is induced in multiple coils wound on the rotor, which is driven at a constant 3,600 rpm (3,000 rpm in 50 Hz European models) by the speed governor of the generator s engine Large-capacity slip rings and brushes transfer the large output currents from the moving rotor to the generator-output terminals The output of the generator is sinusoidal in wave form The small DC eld current is usually taken from a recti er bridge connected across a pair of output terminals To get around the chicken-or-egg dilemma of requiring a stator eld in order to begin generating curFig 810 Two-Brush Armature Generator
Field winding Armature Brush
rent, the stator magnets are designed to retain a degree of permanent magnetism A few generators solve the same problem by taking the current for the stator windings directly from the ship s batteries Generators with a single 120-volt AC output generally have two brushes, as shown in Figure 810 One brush/terminal is hot (black conductor); the other brush/terminal is neutral (white conductor) and is connected to the case of the generator and to ship s ground via the green grounding conductor Note that single-voltage European versions produce 240 volts AC rather than 120 volts AC Generators having both 120-volt AC output and 240-volt AC output have either three or four brushes Figure 811 shows a four-brush generator Brushes 2 and 3 (neutral) are tied together to the case and to ship s ground Brushes 1 and 4 are hot The voltages between brush 1 and neutral and between brush 4 and neutral are both 120 volts AC, but of opposite polarity The voltage between brushes 1 and 4 is thus 240 volts AC
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