Curing Noise in Visual Studio .NET

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Curing Noise
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The rst step in curing a noise problem is to recognize how electrical noise is generated and how it penetrates electronic equipment Figure 1311 shows that electrical equipment can be divided into noise generators (alternators, generators, ignitions, regulators, DC motors, uorescent xtures, and some types of digital electronics) and noise receivers (radios and electronic navigation devices) Sometimes a single piece of equipment falls into both categories I am reminded of my autopilot, whose DC motor caused noise in my radios, but whose electronic control went crazy when I transmitted on a nearby handheld VHF
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Fig 1311 Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Generators and Receivers
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RFI GENERATORS
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Motor, fathometer, fluorescent
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RFI RECEIVERS
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Electrical Filters
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Cures fall into two categories: shielding and ltering Shielding consists of enclosing sensitive electronics in a metal case and connecting the case to ground, thereby shunting radiated noise to ground By enclosing power and signal leads in shielded cable and connecting the cable shield to the metal case, we shunt noise induced in the leads to ground, as well Filtering utilizes capacitors and inductors Capacitors conduct AC but block DC, while inductors conduct DC but block AC The ideal 12-volt source is pure DC Noise, on the other hand, is AC, either generated by the alternator or generator, or picked up by power leads acting like antennas To reduce the amount of AC in a DC supply, we place capacitors across the + and leads and inductors in series with the leads Capacitors for 12-volt DC applications should be rated at 50 working volts (50 WVDC) minimum Large capacitors are generally polarized electrolytics, so make sure you observe proper polarity Inductors are rated by the maximum continuous DC current they can carry, as well as the value of inductance For electronic navigation equipment, a 5-amp rating is generally suf cient For DC motors (pumps and autopilots), a 10-amp rating is common Alternators and generators require ratings that match or exceed their peak output ratings Inductors with 50-, 70-, and 100-amp ratings are common In the case of noise on power leads, the unprotected length of lead serves as an antenna, picking up the noise Thus, it is important to install the lter as closely as possible to the noise generator or the receiver Sometimes a single capacitor or inductor will reduce the noise to an acceptable level More powerful solutions are provided by a variety of special commercially available lters, combining capacitors and inductors, as shown in Figure 1312
Fig 1312 A Typical RFI Filter
Figure 1313 lays out a step-by-step attack on electronic noise The rst six steps attack the noise sources, since killing but a single source may reduce the noise to an acceptable level on all receivers The last four steps treat the receivers individually The plan also proceeds roughly in order of increasing cost It is assumed that, as each step is implemented, all previous cures are left in place
1 Run separate grounding conductors from the alternator (or generator) case and from the cases of the affected equipment to boat ground 2 Install a 10,000 F, 50 VDC electrolytic capacitor across the alternator + output and ground terminals 3 Install a 1 F, 50 VDC capacitor from the voltage regulator battery terminal to ground 4 Install 1 F, 50 VDC capacitors across the + and power input leads of all motors, uorescent xtures, and the depth sounder 5 Install an alternator lter across the alternator + output and ground terminals The lter rating must exceed the output ampere rating of the alternator 6 Install commercial 10-amp lters across the + and power input leads of all motors and 10amp lters across the + and power input leads of uorescent xtures and the depth sounder 7 Install 1 F, 50 VDC capacitors across the + and power input leads of all affected electronics 8 Install 1 F, 50 VDC nonpolarized capacitors from the + power lead to chassis ground and the power lead to chassis ground 9 Install commercial 5-amp line lters across the + and power input leads of each piece of affected electronics 10 Enclose affected electronic equipment in screened-metal enclosures, or wrap in foil tape and connect the enclosure, or tape, to boat ground
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