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Initializing Arrays of Objects
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If a class defines a parameterized constructor, you can initialize each object in an array by specifying an initialization list as you do for other types of arrays However, the exact form of the initialization list will be decided by the number of parameters required by the object s constructor For objects whose constructors take only one parameter, you can simply specify a list of initial values, using the normal array-initialization
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syntax Each value in the list is passed, in order, to the constructor function as each element in the array is created For example, here is a program that initializes an array:
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; class cl { int i; public: cl(int j) { i=j; } // constructor int get_i() { return i; } }; int main() { cl ob[3] = {1, 2, 3}; int i;
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// initializers
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for(i=0; i<3; i++) cout << ob[i]get_i() << "\n"; return 0; }
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This program displays the numbers 1, 2, and 3 on the screen If an object s constructor requires two or more arguments, then you will have to use the slightly different initialization form shown here
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; class cl { int h; int i; public: cl(int j, int k) { h=j; i=k; } // constructor int get_i() { return i; } int get_h() { return h; } }; int main()
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A Closer Look at Classes and Objects
{ cl ob[3] = { cl(1, 2), cl(3, 4), cl(5, 6) }; // initializers int i; for(i=0; i<3; i++) { cout << ob[i]get_h(); cout << ", "; cout << ob[i]get_i() << "\n"; } return 0; }
In this example, cl s constructor has two parameters and, therefore, requires two arguments This means that the shorthand initialization format cannot be used Instead, use the long form shown in the example (Of course, you may use the long form in cases where the constructor requires only one argument, too It is just that the short form is easier to use when only one argument is required)
Creating Initialized Versus Uninitialized Arrays
A special case occurs if you intend to create both initialized and uninitialized arrays of objects Consider the following class
class cl { int i; public: cl(int j) { i=j; } int get_i() { return i; } };
Here, the constructor function defined by cl requires one parameter This implies that any array declared of this type must be initialized That is, it precludes this array declaration:
cl a[9]; // error, constructor requires initializers
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The reason that this statement isn t valid (as cl is currently defined) is that it implies that cl has a parameterless constructor because no initializers are specified However, as it stands, cl does not have a parameterless constructor Because there is no valid constructor that corresponds to this declaration, the compiler will report an error To solve this problem, you need to overload the constructor, adding one that takes no parameters In this way, arrays that are initialized and those that are not initialized are both allowed For example, here is an improved version of cl:
class cl { int i; public: cl() { i=0; } // called for non-initialized arrays cl(int j) { i=j; } // called for initialized arrays int get_i() { return i; } };
cl a1[3] = { 3, 5, 6 }; // initialized cl a2[34]; // uninitialized
Pointers to Objects
In C you can access a structure directly or through a pointer to that structure Similarly, in C++ you can refer to an object either directly (as has been the case in all preceding examples) or by using a pointer to that object Pointers to objects are among C++ s most important features To access a member of an object when using the actual object itself, you use the dot ( ) operator To access a specific member of an object through a pointer to the object, you must use the arrow operator ( >) The use of the dot and arrow operators for objects is the same as their use for structures and unions You declare an object pointer using the same declaration syntax as you do for any other type of data The following program creates a simple class called P_example and defines an object of that class called ob and a pointer for an object of type P_example called p It then illustrates how to access ob directly and indirectly using a pointer
// A simple example using an object pointer #include <iostream> using namespace std;
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